1. Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government
for the Plymouth colony.
2. William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists
get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
3. Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal
in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt
reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.
4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony
established political freedom and a representative government.
5. Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that
they would have control of the government of the colony.
6. Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts
Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
7. Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
8. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649.
A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group
of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
9. Separatists, non-separatists
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists
(which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God
decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative
government and the separation of church and state.
11. Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic
beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over
12. Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance
with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the
"elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government
and were more open to different beliefs.
13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced
to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
14. Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of
Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
15. Covenant theology
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God’s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of
grace between God and man through Christ.
16. Voting granted to church members - 1631
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
17. Half-way Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who
hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
18. Brattle Street Church
1698 - Founded by Thomas Brattle. His church differed from the Puritans in that it did not require people to prove that
they had achieved grace in order to become full church members.
19. Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people
have a right to choose their magistrates.
20. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution
written in America.
21. Saybrook Platform
It organized town churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony
22. Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster
and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
23. Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
24. New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between
25. King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip.
The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists
won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
26. Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into
a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out
27. Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to
28. Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some
share of the company’s profits and debts.
29. Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of
the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They
offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the
colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.
30. Headright system
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants
into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
31. John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult
32. John Rolfe, tobacco
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco
in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
34. House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would
adopt houses of burgesses.
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads,
loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
36. Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease
the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader,
which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died
of an illness.
37. Culperer’s Rebellion
Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed,
but Culperer was acquitted.
38. Georgia: reasons, successes
1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony,
but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
39. James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism
were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s
dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative
government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the
poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being
split into North and South Carolina.
41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never
put into effect. The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were
Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
43. Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was
grown in South Carolina.
44. Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven
for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
45. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
46. Holy experiment
William Penn’s term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom
47. Frame of government
1701 - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government
and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
48. New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British
came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the
colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
49. Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people
were able to accomplish this.
50. Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English
on Sept. 8, 1664.
51. Five Nations
The federation of tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga.
The federation was also known as the "Iriquois," or the League of Five Nations, although in about 1720 the Tuscarora
tribe was added as a sixth member. It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s.
Some of the ideas from its constitution were used in the Constitution of the United States.
52. Crops in the Middle Colonies
The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
53. New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade. Piladelphia
was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population of 10,000.
It was the capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.
54. Leisler’s Rebellion
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled
and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated
in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.
55. Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected
in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
56. John Bartram (1699-1777)
America’s first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where
Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including
all Christian denominations and Jews.
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening
was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
59. Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
60. George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
61. William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian
ministers in 1726.
62. Gilbert Tennant
William Tennant’s son. Developed a theology of revivalism.
63. Old Lights, New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational
church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
64. Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that
members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
65. Maryland Act of Toleration (Act of Religious Toleration)
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large
Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards
He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the
late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
68. SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry
and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession
of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain
exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import
goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
71. Admiralty courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the
British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges
without a jury.
72. Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa,
exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle
Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships
returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
73. Merchants / Markets
A market is the area or group of people which needs a product. Colonial merchants took goods produced in the colonies
to areas of the world that needed those goods. Also, the colonies served as a market for other countries’ goods.
74. Consignment system
One company sells another company’s products, and then gives the producing company most of the profits, but
keeps a percentage (a commission) for itself.
75. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain
and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of
the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants ignored it.
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
77. Hat Act, 1732
Declared that hats made in the colonies could not be exported.
78. Iron Act, 1750
Declared that no new iron forges or mills could be created in the colonies.
79. Currency Act, 1751
This act applied only to Massachusetts. It was an attempt to ban the production of paper money in Massachusetts, but it
was defeated in Parliament.
80. Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat
the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
81. Salem witch trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as
the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions
had been a terrible mistake.
82. Primogeniture, entail
These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Primogeniture requried that a man’s
real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son. Entail requried that property could only be left to direct descendants
(usually sons), and not to persons outside of the family.
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
84. Indentured servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage,
and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would
85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice
(the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac).
It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
87. Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.
88. Magna Carta, 1215
An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It has influenced later constitutional
documents in Britain and America.
89. Petition of Right, 1628
A document drawn up by Parliament’s House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending
Parliament’s powers while limiting the king’s. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that
free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without
compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
90. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality
of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges
who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
91. Bill of Rights, 1689
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people.
It also limited the king’s powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
92. Board of Trade (of the Privy Council)
Advisors to the king who regulated British trade during the 1600s and 1700s.
93. Robert Walpole
Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
94. "Salutary neglect"
Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with
British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation
of the colonies.
95. The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the
scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination,
emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds
that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
96. Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political
beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had
virtual representation in the British government.
97. Rise of the Lower House
Most of the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house
appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the
people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead.
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter
colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control
over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
99. Colonial agents
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England
and the colonies.
100. Town meetings
A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New
England. In general, the town’s voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass
01. John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The
trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
102. Glorious Revolution, 1688
King James II’s policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known
as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked
him to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over the throne.
King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wife Queen Mary II took the throne
without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious."
103. John Locke (1632-1704), his theories
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings
have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government
was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed
to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government.
104. A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and
the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the people. Hence, the government which they designed
contains many aspects of a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly on the laws,
but instead elect representatives who vote for them.
105. Land claims and squabbles in North America
The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west of
it. Both the British and the French laid claim to Canada and the Ohio Valley region.
106. Differences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole
families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The
French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there
were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs
and sometimes taking Indian wives.
107. Queen Anne’s War, 1702-1713
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King
Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain,
allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats
in most of their military operations in North America.
108. Peace of Utrecht, 1713
Ended Queen Anne’s War. Undermined France’s power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay,
Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
109. War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1743)
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the
Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
110. King George’s War (1744-1748)
Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne’s
War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia).
111. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada.
The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the
French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain
eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had
allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.
112. Francis Parkman (1823-1893)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America.
113. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate
under the authority of the British government.
114. General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of
the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command,
Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
115. William Pitt (1708-1778)
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British
control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
116. Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops
in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them.
The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
117. Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec
1759 - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial
attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
118. Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost
Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the
land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
119. Pontiac’s Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British
expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was
120. Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains,
and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
121. Writs of Assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods,
and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials
did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime
or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies.
122. James Otis
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the
writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.
123. Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
124. Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise
sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were
reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the
costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
125. Grenville’s Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a
standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting
new taxes in the colonies.
126. Sugar Act, 1764
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the
tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents
to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created
the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
127. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than
Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as
part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
128. Currency Act, 1764
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused
by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
129. Vice-admiralty courts
In these courts, British judges tried colonials in trials with no juries.
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
131. Virtual, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political
beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had
virtual representation in the British government.
132. Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that
all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped
British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies
from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation
movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
133. Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry’s speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies.
He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resisitence to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the
Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765.
134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the
new taxes imposed on the colonies.
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and
its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense"
in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death."
Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be
adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
136. Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They
incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many
of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards
the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered
an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen
felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
138. External taxes
Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered
an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to
Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported
139. Declatory Act, 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies
both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
140. Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
141. Townshend Acts, reaction
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury
items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited
another movement to stop importing British goods.
142. John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania"
in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed
the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
143. Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import
goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia
Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and
the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He
served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
145. The Association
A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries
on the Delaware River.
146. Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea
1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except for the tax on tea.
147. Boston Massacre, 1770
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the worked for very low wages and took jobs away from
colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers
panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment.
148. Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He
became a martyr.
149. John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp
Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress
to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President
of the United States.
150. Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government
of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups
of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular
courts were established in those areas.
151. Battle of the Alamance
May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion of the Carolina Regulators at Alamance
Creek. The leaders of the Regulators were executed.
152. Gaspée Incident
In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help,
colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation
of Committees of Correspondence.
153. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts
A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774. Even before becoming Governor,
Hutchinson had been a supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the
Stamp Acts riots in 1765. In 1773 his refusal to comply with demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading
its cargo percipitated the Boston Tea Party. He fled to England in 1774, where he spent the remainder of his life.
154. Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating
information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts
in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade
regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
155. Lord North
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King
George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early
peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis’ surrender in 1781.
156. Tea Act, East India Company
The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British
tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
157. Boston Tea Party, 1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was
boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December
16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid
that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
158. Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the
Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but
it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and
the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
159. Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost
160. Massachusetts Government Act
This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected,
but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior
of the colony.
161. Quebec Act, First Continental Congress, 1774
The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman- Catholic Church in Quebec.
Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental
Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissoltions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops),
Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a
unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias,
and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response,
in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
162. Suffolk Resolves
Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8,
1774. Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal
government, and prepared local militias.
163. Galloway Plan
A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial
legislatures. It was defeated by one vote.
164. Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees
of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
165. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774
General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British
marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The colonial militias, warned beforehand by
Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington.
The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial
militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the
road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
166. Paul Revere, William Dawes
They rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of
Lexington and Concord, although Revere was detained by the British shortly after setting out, and never completed his portion
of the planned ride. Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the British by surprise.
167. Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared
that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
168. George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the
French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
169. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify
the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, to counter
the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the
third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the
battle centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.
170. Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if
it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected
by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
171. Thomas Paine: Common Sense
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence.
It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public
opinion in favor of the Revolution.
172. Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and
173. John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those
rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social
contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract
by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
174. George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
175. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution of June 7, 1776
Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and
was the first step towards independence.
176. Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later
served as the third President of the United States.
177. Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington
These men, along with John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, made up the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
178. July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies’
ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
179. Somerset Case (in Great Britain)
A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master. In London, he tried to escape.
Judge Mansfield ruled that a slave who escaped in England couldn’t be extradited to the colonies for trial.
180. Quock Walker case, Massachusetts
1783 - Helped end slavery in Massachusetts.
181. Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She
urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.
182. Mercy Otis Warren
A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution.
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's
colonial policies were misguided. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal,
and not an animal of the highest order."
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von
Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
185. George Rogers Clark (1752-1818)
Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, 1798.
186. Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental
Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates
victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in
1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission
in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
187. Robert Morris (1734-1806)
A delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He agreed that Britain had treated the colonies unfairly, but he didn’t
believe that the colonies should dissolve ties with Britain. He argued against the Declaration of Independence.
188. John Paul Jones (1747-1792)
Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but
he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.
189. Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis
The Bonhomme Richard was John Paul Jones’ ship, which was named for Benjamin Franklin's pseudonym, Poor Richard.
The Serapis was the British ship he captured.
190. Conway Cabal
The name given to the New England delegates in the Continental Congress who tried to wrest control of the Continental
Army and the Revolution away from George Washington. Named after Major General Thomas Conway.
191. French Alliance of 1778, reasons for it
The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain’s rival and hoped to weaken
Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American
victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
192. Major battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge
In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link
up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio
Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. Valley Forge was
not a battle; it was the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- ’78, after its defeats
at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold
and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then
meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia.
193. Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched
their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful,
and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British
commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements.
The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental
Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
194. League of Armed Neutrality
Catherine I of Russia declared that the Russian navy would defend neutral trade throughout the world. They were not successful.
195. Treaty of Paris, 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies
the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi
196. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
197. French and British Intrigue over U.S. boundaries
The Treaty of Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border of Canada, the northern border of Florida,
the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.
198. Social impact of the war
The Revolutionary War saw the emergence of the first anti-slavery groups, and many of the northern states abolished slavery
after the war. Women gained a small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers
of future patriots.
199. Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and
200. New state constitutions (Massachusetts adopted by popular vote)
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the
legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong
leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After
the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power
between the legislative and the executive.
201. Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress
about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered
staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support
202. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops)
to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles’
weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn’t keep the country united. The
Articles’ only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles
were abandoned for the Constitution.
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be
changed through amendments.
204. Constitution: Preamble
"We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,
do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
205. Constitution: Legislature
One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House
of Representatives and the Senate.
206. Constitution: Logrolling
This refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills.
207. Constitution: Riders
Separate, unrelated clauses added to a bill in the legislature, either in order to ensure that the bill passes or to ensure
that it fails.
208. Constitution: Quorum
The minimum number of members of Congress who must be present in order to hold a session. In Congress, this number is
more than half of the members.
209. Constitution: Seniority
Part of the committee system. A member of Congress in a committee moves up in rank in that committee as long as he is
210. Constitution: Committee system
After a bill is introduced in Congress, it is assigned to a small group of legislators for review and consideration, and
the committee must vote to approve the bill before it is returned to the Senate or the House for a vote.
211. Constitution: Majority leader
The person elected, by the majority party of Congress, to be leader of the majority party in Congress.
212. Constitution: Majority whip
The person who tells members of the majority party in Congress how they should vote.
213. Constitution: Minority leader
The person elected, by the minority party of Congress, to be leader of the minority party in Congress.
214. Constitution: Minority whip
The person who tells members of the minority party in Congress how they should vote.
215. Constitution: Gerrymander
The practice of drawing the boundary lines of Congressional voting districts to give a particular political party an advantage
when electing representatives. First used during Eldbridge Gerry’s second term as governor of Massachusetts, the
term comes from a combination of Gerry's name and a refernce that the shape of the distict boundary resembled a salamander.
216. Constitution: Bills become law
In order for a bill to become a law, it must be introduced to committee and be approved. Then it must be voted on by the
House of Representatives, and then voted on by the Senate, or vice versa, depending on the branch in which the bill was first
introduced. Finally, it must be signed by the President.
217. Constitution: House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the
people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state’s population.
218. Constitution: Senate
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by
state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
219. Constitution: Executive branch
One of the three branches of government, the executive enforces laws. It is headed by the president, who has the power
to veto legislation passed by Congress.
220. Constitution: Judiciary branch
One of the three branches of government, the judiciary interprets laws. The highest authority in the judiciary is the
Supreme Court, which determines the constitutionality of laws.