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1. Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
2. William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
3. Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.
4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
5. Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.
6. Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
7. Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
8. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
9. Separatists, non-separatists
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
10. Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
11. Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
12. Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
14. Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
15. Covenant theology
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God’s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of grace between God and man through Christ.
16. Voting granted to church members - 1631
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
17. Half-way Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
18. Brattle Street Church
1698 - Founded by Thomas Brattle. His church differed from the Puritans in that it did not require people to prove that they had achieved grace in order to become full church members.
19. Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
20. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
21. Saybrook Platform
It organized town churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut.
22. Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
23. Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
24. New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
25. King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
26. Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
27. Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
28. Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
29. Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.
30. Headright system
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
31. John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
32. John Rolfe, tobacco
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
34. House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
35. Cavaliers
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
36. Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
37. Culperer’s Rebellion
Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted.
38. Georgia: reasons, successes
1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
39. James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
40. Carolinas
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect. The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
42. Charleston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
43. Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
44. Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
45. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
46. Holy experiment
William Penn’s term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
47. Frame of government
1701 - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
48. New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
49. Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
50. Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
51. Five Nations
The federation of tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga. The federation was also known as the "Iriquois," or the League of Five Nations, although in about 1720 the Tuscarora tribe was added as a sixth member. It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s. Some of the ideas from its constitution were used in the Constitution of the United States.
52. Crops in the Middle Colonies
The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
53. New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade. Piladelphia was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population of 10,000. It was the capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.
54. Leisler’s Rebellion
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.
55. Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
56. John Bartram (1699-1777)
America’s first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
59. Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
60. George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
61. William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
62. Gilbert Tennant
William Tennant’s son. Developed a theology of revivalism.
63. Old Lights, New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
64. Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
65. Maryland Act of Toleration (Act of Religious Toleration)
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
66. Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
67. Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
68. SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
71. Admiralty courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
72. Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
73. Merchants / Markets
A market is the area or group of people which needs a product. Colonial merchants took goods produced in the colonies to areas of the world that needed those goods. Also, the colonies served as a market for other countries’ goods.
74. Consignment system
One company sells another company’s products, and then gives the producing company most of the profits, but keeps a percentage (a commission) for itself.
75. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants ignored it.
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
77. Hat Act, 1732
Declared that hats made in the colonies could not be exported.
78. Iron Act, 1750
Declared that no new iron forges or mills could be created in the colonies.
79. Currency Act, 1751
This act applied only to Massachusetts. It was an attempt to ban the production of paper money in Massachusetts, but it was defeated in Parliament.
80. Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
81. Salem witch trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
82. Primogeniture, entail
These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Primogeniture requried that a man’s real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son. Entail requried that property could only be left to direct descendants (usually sons), and not to persons outside of the family.
83. Quitrents
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
84. Indentured servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
87. Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.
88. Magna Carta, 1215
An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It has influenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America.
89. Petition of Right, 1628
A document drawn up by Parliament’s House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament’s powers while limiting the king’s. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
90. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
91. Bill of Rights, 1689
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king’s powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
92. Board of Trade (of the Privy Council)
Advisors to the king who regulated British trade during the 1600s and 1700s.
93. Robert Walpole
Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
94. "Salutary neglect"
Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.
95. The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
96. Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
97. Rise of the Lower House
Most of the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead.
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
99. Colonial agents
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies.
100. Town meetings
A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town’s voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.
01. John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
102. Glorious Revolution, 1688
King James II’s policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over the throne. King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wife Queen Mary II took the throne without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious."
103. John Locke (1632-1704), his theories
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government.
104. A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the people. Hence, the government which they designed contains many aspects of a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote for them.
105. Land claims and squabbles in North America
The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west of it. Both the British and the French laid claim to Canada and the Ohio Valley region.
106. Differences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.
107. Queen Anne’s War, 1702-1713
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.
108. Peace of Utrecht, 1713
Ended Queen Anne’s War. Undermined France’s power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
109. War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1743)
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
110. King George’s War (1744-1748)
Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne’s War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia).
111. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.
112. Francis Parkman (1823-1893)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America.
113. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
114. General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
115. William Pitt (1708-1778)
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
116. Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
117. Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec
1759 - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
118. Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
119. Pontiac’s Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
120. Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
121. Writs of Assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies.
122. James Otis
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.
123. Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
124. Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
125. Grenville’s Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
126. Sugar Act, 1764
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
127. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
128. Currency Act, 1764
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
129. Vice-admiralty courts
In these courts, British judges tried colonials in trials with no juries.
130. Non-importation
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
131. Virtual, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
132. Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
133. Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry’s speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resisitence to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765.
134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
136. Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
138. External taxes
Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.
139. Declatory Act, 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
140. Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
141. Townshend Acts, reaction
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing British goods.
142. John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
143. Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
145. The Association
A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River.
146. Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea
1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except for the tax on tea.
147. Boston Massacre, 1770
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment.
148. Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
149. John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
150. Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
151. Battle of the Alamance
May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion of the Carolina Regulators at Alamance Creek. The leaders of the Regulators were executed.
152. Gaspée Incident
In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.
153. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts
A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774. Even before becoming Governor, Hutchinson had been a supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the Stamp Acts riots in 1765. In 1773 his refusal to comply with demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading its cargo percipitated the Boston Tea Party. He fled to England in 1774, where he spent the remainder of his life.
154. Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
155. Lord North
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis’ surrender in 1781.
156. Tea Act, East India Company
The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
157. Boston Tea Party, 1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
158. Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
159. Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
160. Massachusetts Government Act
This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.
161. Quebec Act, First Continental Congress, 1774
The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman- Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissoltions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
162. Suffolk Resolves
Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774. Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias.
163. Galloway Plan
A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial legislatures. It was defeated by one vote.
164. Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
165. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774
General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
166. Paul Revere, William Dawes
They rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord, although Revere was detained by the British shortly after setting out, and never completed his portion of the planned ride. Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the British by surprise.
167. Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
168. George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
169. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.
170. Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
171. Thomas Paine: Common Sense
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
172. Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.
173. John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
174. George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
175. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution of June 7, 1776
Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence.
176. Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
177. Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington
These men, along with John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, made up the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
178. July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies’ ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
179. Somerset Case (in Great Britain)
A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master. In London, he tried to escape. Judge Mansfield ruled that a slave who escaped in England couldn’t be extradited to the colonies for trial.
180. Quock Walker case, Massachusetts
1783 - Helped end slavery in Massachusetts.
181. Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.
182. Mercy Otis Warren
A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution.
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order."
184. Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
185. George Rogers Clark (1752-1818)
Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, 1798.
186. Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
187. Robert Morris (1734-1806)
A delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He agreed that Britain had treated the colonies unfairly, but he didn’t believe that the colonies should dissolve ties with Britain. He argued against the Declaration of Independence.
188. John Paul Jones (1747-1792)
Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.
189. Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis
The Bonhomme Richard was John Paul Jones’ ship, which was named for Benjamin Franklin's pseudonym, Poor Richard. The Serapis was the British ship he captured.
190. Conway Cabal
The name given to the New England delegates in the Continental Congress who tried to wrest control of the Continental Army and the Revolution away from George Washington. Named after Major General Thomas Conway.
191. French Alliance of 1778, reasons for it
The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain’s rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
192. Major battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge
In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. Valley Forge was not a battle; it was the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- ’78, after its defeats at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia.
193. Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
194. League of Armed Neutrality
Catherine I of Russia declared that the Russian navy would defend neutral trade throughout the world. They were not successful.
195. Treaty of Paris, 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
196. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
197. French and British Intrigue over U.S. boundaries
The Treaty of Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border of Canada, the northern border of Florida, the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.
198. Social impact of the war
The Revolutionary War saw the emergence of the first anti-slavery groups, and many of the northern states abolished slavery after the war. Women gained a small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers of future patriots.
199. Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State.
200. New state constitutions (Massachusetts adopted by popular vote)
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.
201. Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
202. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles’ weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn’t keep the country united. The Articles’ only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
203. Constitution
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
204. Constitution: Preamble
"We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
205. Constitution: Legislature
One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
206. Constitution: Logrolling
This refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills.
207. Constitution: Riders
Separate, unrelated clauses added to a bill in the legislature, either in order to ensure that the bill passes or to ensure that it fails.
208. Constitution: Quorum
The minimum number of members of Congress who must be present in order to hold a session. In Congress, this number is more than half of the members.
209. Constitution: Seniority
Part of the committee system. A member of Congress in a committee moves up in rank in that committee as long as he is reelected.
210. Constitution: Committee system
After a bill is introduced in Congress, it is assigned to a small group of legislators for review and consideration, and the committee must vote to approve the bill before it is returned to the Senate or the House for a vote.
211. Constitution: Majority leader
The person elected, by the majority party of Congress, to be leader of the majority party in Congress.
212. Constitution: Majority whip
The person who tells members of the majority party in Congress how they should vote.
213. Constitution: Minority leader
The person elected, by the minority party of Congress, to be leader of the minority party in Congress.
214. Constitution: Minority whip
The person who tells members of the minority party in Congress how they should vote.
215. Constitution: Gerrymander
The practice of drawing the boundary lines of Congressional voting districts to give a particular political party an advantage when electing representatives. First used during Eldbridge Gerry’s second term as governor of Massachusetts, the term comes from a combination of Gerry's name and a refernce that the shape of the distict boundary resembled a salamander.
216. Constitution: Bills become law
In order for a bill to become a law, it must be introduced to committee and be approved. Then it must be voted on by the House of Representatives, and then voted on by the Senate, or vice versa, depending on the branch in which the bill was first introduced. Finally, it must be signed by the President.
217. Constitution: House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state’s population.
218. Constitution: Senate
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
219. Constitution: Executive branch
One of the three branches of government, the executive enforces laws. It is headed by the president, who has the power to veto legislation passed by Congress.
220. Constitution: Judiciary branch
One of the three branches of government, the judiciary interprets laws. The highest authority in the judiciary is the Supreme Court, which determines the constitutionality of laws.
221. Constitution: Interstate relations
No state is allowed to form a compact with another state or with a foreign power without the consent of Congress.
222. Constitution: The amendment process
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of the members of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures, or special state conventions elected for that purpose.
223. Constitution: Supremacy clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which declares the Constitution, all federal laws passed pursuant to its provisions, and all federal treaties, to be the "supreme law of the land," which override any state laws or state constitutional provisions to the contrary.
224. Constitution: Ratification
The Constitution had to be ratified (approved) by at least 9 of the 13 original states in order to be put into effect.
225. Constitution: Checks and balances
Each of the three branches of government "checks" (ie, blocks) the power of the other two, so no one branch can become too powerful. The president (executive) can veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and also chooses the judges in the Supreme Court (judiciary). Congress can overturn a presidential veto if 2/3 of the members vote to do so. The Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid.
226. Constitution: Separation of power
The powers of the government are divided between three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary.
227. Maryland, cession of western land claims
After the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all of the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips of land were claimed by more than one state. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states to ratify the Articles of Confederation, but Maryland refused to ratify it until all the states gave their western land claims. Maryland held out, and the western land claims were abandoned.
228. New state constitutions during the Revolutionary War and after
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.
229. Pennsylvania militia routs Congress, 1783
Unpaid Revolutionary War veterans staged a protest outside Congress’ meeting hall, forcing Congress to move to Princeton, New Jersey.
230. Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
231. Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
232. Northwest Ordinance, 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
233. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1785
This treaty between the U.S. and Spain would have given the U.S. special privileges at Spanish ports in exchange for giving Spain exclusive rights to the Mississippi River. The U.S. needed access to the Mississippi more than they needed privileged trade with Spain, so this treaty was never signed.
234. Shay’s Rebellion
Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren’t working effectively.
235. Annapolis Convention, 1786
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government’s debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
236. 1780's Depression
Caused by a post-war decrease in production and increase in unemployment, and also caused by tough interstate commerce rules which decreased trade.
237. Noah Webster (1758-1843)
Wrote some of the first dictionaries and spellers in the U.S. His books, which became the standard for the U.S., promoted American spellings and pronunciations, rather than British.
238. Philadelphia Convention for the Constitution (Constitutional Convention)
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
239. Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws
He believed that the government’s power should be divided into separate branches, that the government should be close to the people, and that laws should reflect the will of the people.
240. John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that a contract existed between a government and its people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
241. Hobbes (1588-1679)
English philosopher who believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and fear, and need a strong government to keep them under control. He developed the theory that kings are given their position by divine right, and thus should have absolute power.
242. James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
243. Great Compromise
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state’s representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
244. Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state’s representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation. The Connecticut Plan called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the Compromise Plan.
245. North-South Compromises
The North was given full federal protection of trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the House.
246. Slavery and the Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause
The South’s slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population.
247. Procedures for amendments
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions.
248. Beard thesis, his critics
Charles Austin Beard wrote in 1913 that the Constitution was written not to ensure a democratic government for the people, but to protect the economic interests of its writers (most of the men at the Constitutional Convention were very rich), and specifically to benefit wealthy financial speculators who had purchased Revolutionary War government bonds through the creation of a strong national government that could insure the bonds repayment. Beard’s thesis has met with much criticism.
249. Fiske, The Critical Period of American History
He called the introduction of the Constitution the "critical period" because the Constitution saved the nation from certain disaster under the Articles of Confederation.
250. Antifederalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
251. Supporters of the Constitution
Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
252. Opponents of the Constitution
Known as Antifederalists, they were mostly commoners who were afraid of strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
253. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia.
254. Sam Adams
He was opposed to the Constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it.
255. George Mason, Bill of Rights
He opposed the Constitution because it didn’t protect individual rights. His opposition led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
256. The ratification fights, especially in Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia
Massachusetts farmers opposed the Constitution because they felt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratify. New York was opposed to the Constitution; the Federalist Papers were published there to gain support for it. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
257. The Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
258. "The Federalist, # 10"
This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good).
259. Bill of Rights adopted, 1791
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
260. President George Washington
He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
261. Vice-president John Adams
A Federalist, he had little say in Washington’s administration.
262. Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
263. Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
264. Sec. of State Jefferson
A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton’s ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
265. Sec. of War Knox
A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington’s cabinet.
266. Attorney General Randolph
Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak of the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congressand as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788. He submitted the virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney General, and then succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State. In 1795 he resigned form office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington’s administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the french government.
267. Hamilton’s Program: ideas, proposals, reasons for it
Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
268. Tariff of 1789
Designed to raise revenue for the federal government, resulted in a government surplus.
269. Bank of the U.S.
Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.
270. National debt, state debt, foreign debt
The U.S.’s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton’s program paid off these debts.
271. Excise taxes
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program.
272. Report on Manufactures
A document submitted to Congress, which set up an economic policy to encourage industry.
273. Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause
Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forfegoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
274. Loose, strict interpretation of the Constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
275. Location of the capitol: Washington D.C., circumstances surrounding it
The South was angry that the whole country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in the North, and that slaves were not being counted as full persons for purposes of assigning the number of representatives that each state would have in the House. As part of the Compromise Plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that the nation’s capitol would be located in the South.
276. Residence Act
Set the length of time which immigrants must live in the U.S. in order to become legal citizens.
277. Major L’Enfant, Benjamin Banneker
Architects of Washington, D.C.
278. Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
279. Washington’s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
280. Election of 1796: President Adams, Vice-president Jefferson
The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist, but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican.
281. New states: Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee
After the western land claims were settled, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee (in that order) were added to the United States under the Constitution.
282. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
The first two political parties. Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
283. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Party leaders and supporters
The leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The leading Democratic- Republicans were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
284. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Programs
Federalist programs were the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry. The Democratic-Republicans opposed these programs, favoring state banks and little industry.
285. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Philosophies
Federalists believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution.
286. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Foreign proclivities
Federalists supported Britain, while the Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the U.S.’s most important ally.
287. Society of the Cincinnati
A secret society formed by officers of the Continental Army. The group was named for George Washington, whose nickname was Cincinnatus, although Washington himself had no involvement in the society.
288. Democratic societies
Clubs which met for discussion, designed to keep alive the philosophies of the American Revolution. They were sometimes called Jacobean clubs because they also supported the French Revolution.
289. Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
290. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
291. Doctrine of Nullification
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
292. Election of 1800, tie, Jefferson and Burr
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The final decision went the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
293. Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
294. Jefferson’s Inaugural Address
Declared that he would avoid foreign alliances.
295. 12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
296. Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
297. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
American painter, most famous for painting the portrait of Washington which was copied for the one dollar bill.
298. Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827)
An American naturalist painter.
299. French Alliance of 1778
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn’t do anything to help. The U.S. didn’t fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I.
300. French Revolution
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
301. Citizen Genêt
Edmond Charles Genêt. A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Genêt after Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt.
302. Neutrality Proclamation
Washington’s declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
303. XYZ Affair, Talleyrand
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand’s three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
304. Undeclared naval war with France
Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had began seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict.
305. Convention of 1800
A conference between the U.S. and France which ended the naval hostilities.
306. British seizure of American ships
France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports.
307. "Rule of 1756"
A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both of two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one of the nations. This justified Britain’s seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
308. Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
309. Jay’s Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
310. Washington’s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
311. Pickney’s Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
312. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest
During the late 1700s/early 1800s Spain was exploring and settling the region which is now the Southwest U.S. The Spanish used the Indians of Florida and Georgia as spies and encouraged the tribes to raid U.S. settlements, which contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 . Zebulon Pike used his expedition to the West as an opportunity to spy on the Spanish and map out their land.
313. James Wilkinson (1759-1825)
Wilkinson had been an officer in the Continental Army, and later held several positions relating to the Army, such as secretary of the board of war and clothier general to the army. He was one of the Commissioners appointed to receive the Purchase Louisiana from the French, and served as Governor of Louisiana from 1805-1806. He informed Pres. Jefferson of Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, and was the primary witness against Burr at his treason trial, even though Wilkinson was himself implicated in the plot.
314. "Mad" Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers
Wayne had been one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
315. Treaty of Greenville, 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
316. Barbary pirates
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
317. Rutgers v. Waddington, 1784
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to sue for damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor’s Court over the seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. It was the first time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent for the later U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
318. Trevett v. Weeden, 1786-1787
Occurred under the Articles of Confederation, when each state had a different type of currency. Acts passed by the Rhode Island Legislature imposed heavy fines on those who refused to accept the state’s depreciated currency at face value. Weeden was acquitted on the grounds that the acts were unconstitutional.
319. Bayard v. Singleton
1787 - First court decision in which a law was found unconstitutional based on a written constitution.
320. Supreme Court: Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.
321. Supreme Court: Ware v. Hylton, 1796
A treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain required that all debts owed by the U.S. to Britain had to be paid in full. However, a Virginia statute said that American debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. The Supreme Court upheld the treaty, proving that federal laws take precedence over state laws.
322. War of 1812 (1812-1814)
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain’s ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson’s troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
323. Clay’s American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
324. Was Jacksonianism an attack on privilege?
To some extent, it was. Jackson opposed monopolies and the privileged class of society; he attacked the national bank for this reason. He advocated increased popular participation in government and greater opportunity for the common man.
325. Bank war: its enemies and defenders
During Jackson’s presidency, this was a struggle between those who wanted to keep the national bank in operation and those who wanted to abolish it. Jackson and states’ rights advocates opposed the national bank, which they felt imposed discriminatory credit restrictions on local banks, making it more difficult for farmers and small businessmen to obtain loans. The bank was defended by Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, the National Republicans, the wealthy, and larger merchants, who felt that local banks credit policies were irresponsible and would lead to a depression.
326. Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
327. Bank war: laws from 1800 to 1865 on banking
These laws moved away from favoring the national bank towards favoring state banks.
328. Changes in federal land laws and policies
The Land Acts of 1800 and 1820, and the Preemptive Acts of the 1830s and 1840s lowered the price of land and made it easier for prospective settlers to acquire it. This encouraged people to move west.
329. Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
330. Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
331. President Jefferson
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
332. Vice-President Burr
Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
333. Sec. of Treasury Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a financial genius and served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 - 1814 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison. He advocated free trade and opposed the Federalists’ economic policies. Gallatin was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
334. Jefferson’s Inaugural Address, "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans"
Jefferson (a Republican) declared that he wanted to keep the nation unified and avoid partisan conflicts.
335. Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
336. Justice Samuel Chase
A Federalist judge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary War hero, and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration to the Maryland grand jury. Chase was acquited by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
337. Tripolitan War (1801-1805)
Also called the Barbary Wars, this was a series of naval engagements launched by President Jefferson in an effort to stop the attacks on American merchant ships by the Barbary pirates. The war was inconclusive, afterwards, the U.S. paid a tribute to the Barbary states to protect their ships from pirate attacks.
338. Treaty of Sam Ildefonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
339. Louisiana Purchase: reasons, Jefferson, loose construction
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
340. Toussaint L’Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France’s Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
341. Federalist opposition to the Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they felt Jefferson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.
342. Hamilton-Burr duel
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
343. Burr expedition, treason trial
After the duel, Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the territories. Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr’s punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
344. Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
345. Pike, Major Long, their observations
Zebulon Pike explored (1805-1807) Minnesota and the Southwest, mapped the region, and spied on the Spanish whenever his exploration took him into their territory. (He was eventually captured by the Spanish, but the U.S. arranged for his release.) Major Long explored the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
346. Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807)
These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.
347. Polly case, Essex case
These dealt with the impressment of sailors.
348. Orders-in-council
British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
349. Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
350. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
351. Embargo of 1807, opposition
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
352. Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2.
353. Erskine Agreement
1809 - The U.S. offered to cease all trade with France and resume trade with Britain if the British would stop the impressment of American sailors. The British did not agree to this, so this proposal never went into effect.
354. Macon’s Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
355. Tecumseh (1763-1813)
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
356. War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain’s northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
357. Causes of the War of 1812
These included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
358. Why war against Britain rather than against France?
Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to the Indians on the frontier and encouraging them to attack the U.S. Also, Britain held land near the U.S. which the Americans hoped to acquire, and a war with Britain would allow the U.S. to seize Florida from Britain’s ally Spain. Although France had also seized American ships, France had agreed to lift its neutral trading restrictions, and the U.S. had resumed trade with France.
359. Federalist opposition to the War of 1812
The Federalist party was mainly composed of New England merchants, who wanted good relations with Britain and free trade. New England merchants met at the Hartford Convention in protest of the war and the U.S. government’s restrictions on trade.
360. Naval engagements in the War of 1812
The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
361. Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key, "Star Spangled Banner"
Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack. He wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience of seeing the U.S. flag still flying above the fort in the morning, and the poem was later set to the tune of an old English bar song.
362. Events of the War of 1812: Perry, Lake Erie, D.C., New Orleans
Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war.
363. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson’s troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army’s battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
364. New England’s merchants, critics of the War of 1812, Essex Junto
New England’s merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England’s secession from the U.S.
365. Hartford Convention, resolution
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
366. Treaty negotiators: John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay
These three were among the American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.
367. Treaty of Ghent, provisions
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
368. Neutral rights issues end with the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon’s defeat ended the war between Britain and France, and thus ended the need for restrictions on neutral trading.
369. War of 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence
The U.S.’s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America’s access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
370. Second bank of the U.S., a reversal of Jeffersonian ideas
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
371. Tariff of 1816 -- Protective
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
372. Bonus Bill veto
March, 1817 - Madison vetoed John C. Calhoun’s Bonus Bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the federal government in the Constitution.
373. Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Lakes
1817 - This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
374. Convention of 1818
Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
375. Panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
376. West Florida, 1810
The U.S. wanted this region, which now forms the southern parts of the states of Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized West Florida after an uprising by American settlers in the region.
377. Jackson in Florida
1817 - The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids into the U.S. President J. Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish forts in northern Florida. Jackson’s successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S.
378. Purchase of Florida
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
379. Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Spain gave up Florida to the U.S. and the U.S./Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part of Mexico.
380. Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance
The Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
381. George Canning (1770-1829)
Led the House of Commons in Parliament. Cut Great Britain from the Holy Alliance in 1823. First leader to recognize the independence of the Spanish colonies in America and support the Monroe Doctrine, which helped restore good relations between the U.S. and Great Britain.
382. Monroe Doctrine: origins, provisions, impact
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
383. Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe’s two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
384. Chief Justice John Marshall: decision
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
385. Missouri: Tallmadge Amendment, Thomas Amendment
When Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but would forbid the introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at age 25. The Thomas Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region. Neither bill was put into effect.
386. Missouri Compromise, provisions
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36°30" latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.
387. Growth of industry in New England, textiles
The industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth after the War of 1812 that the U.S. began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. The first major industry in New England was textiles.
388. Samuel Slater (1768-1835)
When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
389. Robert Fulton, Clermont
A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
390. Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
391. Interchangeable parts
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.
392. Boston Associates, Lowell, Massachusetts
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
393. Daniel Webster (1782-1852)
A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.
394. National Road (also called Cumberland Road)
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
395. Internal improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
396. Erie Canal, Dewitt Clinton
1825 - The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New York’s Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
397. New states, 1815-1840
The government tried to maintain a balance between slave states and free states. The new states admitted were: Indiana (1816, free), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois (1818, free), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, free), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, free).
398. Federal government’s land policy: 1796, 1800, 1804, 1820
In 1796, land was sold in 640-acre tracts or more for no less than $2 per acre. In 1800, the minimum lot size was reduced to 320 acres. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 160 acres, and the minimum price $1.64 per acre. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 80 acres, and the minimum price $1.25 per acre.
399. New England’s opposition to cheap land
New England was opposed to the federal government’s liberal land policy because they did not feel that their region was benefitting from the money made off the land sales.
400. John Quincy Adams as Sec. of State: Florida, Monroe Doctrine
He served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.
401. Election of 1824: popular vote, electoral vote, house vote: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay - 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
402. "Corrupt Bargain"
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
403. Panama Conference
Summoned by the Venezuelan revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy toward Spain. Two delegates were sent by the U.S., but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were uncomfortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between U.S. and South America.
404. Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
405. Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and protest, nullification
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
406. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’ welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common Man".
407. Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
409. Franchise extended, spoils system
Franchise extended - more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
410. National Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
411. Caucus System, Nation Nominating Conventions
In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process.
412. Kitchen Cabinet
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
414. Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia: 1832 - The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government.
415. Whigs: origins, policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
416. Maysville Road Veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
417. Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
418. Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
419. Veto message
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
420. Jackson's removal of deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-Focos
Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
421. Chestnut Street to Wall
Name change of the street in New York in 1800s.
422. Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne debate
The Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
423. Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
424. Calhoun resigns as vice-president
1832 - Calhoun, from South Carolina, wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of states' rights. His views were so disputed and so different from Jackson's that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
425. South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)
The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
426. Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
427. Jefferson Day Dinner: toasts and quotes
April 13, 1830 - At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
428. Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
429. Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
430. Calhoun splits with Jackson
1832 - Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally, and he wanted independence for the South if they were to be controlled by the majority.
431. Martin Van Buren, the Albany Regency
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
432. Specie Circular
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
433. Charles River Bridge Decision, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, General Incooperation Laws
1837 - The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by Roger B. Taney, modified C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Darmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
434. Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
435. Dorr's Rebellion
In 1841, Rhode Island was governed by a 1663 charter which said that only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (1/2 the adult male population). Thomas Dorr led a group of rebels who wrote a new constitution and elected him governor in 1842. The state militia was called in to stop the rebellion. Dorr was sentenced to life imprisonment, but the sentence was withdrawn. Dorr's Rebellion caused conservatives to realize the need for reform. A new constitution in 1843 gave almost all men the right to vote.
436. Independent Treasury Plan
Idea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
437. Election of 1840: candidates, characteristics
William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0 votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which wasn't entirely true.
438. Rise of the Second Party System
Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's.
439. Pre-emption Act, 1841
This was to help settlers who occupied land and improved it before surveys were done. Without it, settlers could be outbid for the land. Some speculators used "floaters" to pre-empt land for them.
440. Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
441. Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
442. Transcendentalists
Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
443. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
444. Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
445. Orestes Brownson (1803-1876)
Presbyterian layman, Universalist minister, Unitarian preacher and founder of his own church in Boston. Spent his life searching for his place and supporting various causes. As an editor, he attacked organized Christianity and won a large intellectual New England following. Then turned Roman Catholic and became a strong defender of Catholicism in Brownson's Quarterly Review, from 1844 until his death.
446. Margaret Fuller (1810-1815), The Dial
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the puplication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom", "progress in philosophy and theology . . . and hope that the future will not always be as the past."
447. James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), The Spy, The Pioneers
American novelist. The Spy (1821) was about the American Revolution. The Pioneers (1823) tells of an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels about the American frontier, for which Cooper was famous. (Leatherstocking is the scout.) Cooper later stayed in Europe for seven years, and when he returned he was disgusted by American society because it didn't live up to his books. Cooper emphasized the independence of individuals and importance of a stable social order.
448. James Fenimore Cooper, Last of the Mohicans
1826 - It is about a scout named Hawkeye during the French and Indian War, while he was in his prime. It is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, about a frontiersman and a noble Indian, and the clash between growing civilization and untamed wilderness.
449. Herman Melville (1819-1891), Moby Dick
Wrote Moby Dick (1851) about a Captain Ahab who seeks revenge on the white whale that crippled him but ends up losing his life, his ship, and his crew. Wasn't popular at the time but now highly regarded. Melville rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny. His views were not popular at the time, but were accepted by later generations.
450. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-trascendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
451. Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849)
Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." He was the originator of the detective story and had a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known for macabre stories.
452. Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
453. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
454. Walt Whitman (1819-1892), Leaves of Grass
Leaves of Grass (1855) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like "I reckon", "duds", and "folks". He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
455. Hudson River School of Art
In about 1825, a group of American painters, led by Thomas Cole, used their talents to do landscapes, which were not highly regarded. They painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River. Mystical overtones.
456. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
De Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
457. Millennialism, Millerites
Millerites were Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end. The Millennial Dawnists, another sect of the Seventh-Day Adventists, believed the world was under Satan's rule and felt it their obligation to announce the Second Coming of Christ and the battle of Armageddon.
458. "The Burned-Over District"
Term applied to the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800's, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals (religious groups).
459. Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)
An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800's. He helped establish the "Oberlin Theology". His emphasis on "disinterested benevolence" helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
460. Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
461. Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah
1847 - Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
462. Brook Farm
An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
463. New Harmony
A utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
464. Oneida Community
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
465. Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
466. Amana Community
A German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
467. Lyceum Movement
Developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, and entertainment. This movement was directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.
468. Some reforms successful, some not, why?
In the 1800's, it was usually because the general public either didn't vocally support the reform or was opposed it. Not all people wanted change. In general, reforms failed if they were too far out on the political spectrum.
469. Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
470. Rise of labor leaders
During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
471. National Trade Union
Unions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
472. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
473. Criminal Conspiracy Laws and early unions
For a time in the 1700's and 1800's, these laws were directed at early labor unions. The organized stoppage of work by a group of employees in a strike could be judged a criminal restraint of trade. This approach largely ended after Commonwealth v. Hunt.
474. Oberlin, 1833; Mt. Holyoke, 1836
Oberlin: founded by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. The first to enroll Blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Became the model for later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
475. Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
476. American Temperance Union
The flagship of the temperance movement in the 1800's. Opposed alcohol.
477. "Ten Nights in a Bar-Room," Timothy Shay Arthur
A melodramatic story, published in 1856, which became a favorite text for temperance lecturers. In it, a traveller visits the town of Cedarville occasionally for ten years, notes the changing fortunes of the citizens and blames the saloon.
478. Maine Law, Neal Dow
In 1838, Dow founded the Maine Temperance Union. As mayor of Portland, Maine, Dow secured in 1851 the state's passage the Maine Law, which forbade the sale or manufacture of liquor.
479. Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
480. Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
481. Samuel F.B. Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the U.S. Through Foreign Immigration, and the Present State of the Naturalization Laws
He was briefly involved in Nativism and anti-Catholic movements, asserting that foreign immigration posed a threat to the free institutions of the U.S., as immigrants took jobs from Americans and brought dangerous new ideas.
482. Women, their rights, areas of discrimination
In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
483. Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
484. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
485. Seneca Falls
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
486. Emma Willard (1787-1870)
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818 she published Plan for Improving Female Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. In 1821, she opened her own girls’ school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
487. Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
488. "Cult of True Womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness
While many women were in favor of the women's movement, some were not. Some of these believed in preserving the values of "true womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness. These opponents of the women’s movement referred to their ideas as the "Cult of True Womanhood."
489. Women's movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movement
In the 1800's, the women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
490. American Peace Society
Founded in 1828 by William Laddit. Formally condemned all wars, though it supported the U.S. government during the Civil War, WWI, and WWII. It was dissolved after the United Nations was formed in 1945.
491. Prison reform: Auburn system, Pennsylvania system
Prison reform in the U.S. began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform. However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation of prisoners during the day.
492. Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison
1803 - The case arose out of Jefferson’s refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams’ Midnight Appointments. One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall presided.
493. Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person’s property rights. Since the land grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the decisions of state courts.
495. Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
496. Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
497. Supreme Court: Cohens v. Virginia
1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
498. Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
501. Supreme Court: River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837 - Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.
502. Supreme Court: Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
503. Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
504. Manifest Destiny
Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
505. Horace Greeley (1811-1873)
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
506. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858)
A zealous supporter of western interests, he staunchly advocated government support of frontier exploration during his term in the Senate from 1820 - 1850. A senator from Missouri, but he opposed slavery.
507. Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers’ army in the Texas Revolution.
508. Texas War for Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In respone, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
509. Santa Ana
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
510. Alamo
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
511. San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
512. Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
513. Republic of Texas
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
514. Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
515. Election of 1844: Candidates
James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
516. Election of 1844: Issues
Manifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform.
517. Election of 1844: Third party's impact
Third party's impact was significant. James G. Birney drew enough votes away from Clay to give Polk New York, and thus the election.
518. Election 1844: Liberty Party
The first abolitionist party - believed in ending slavery.
519. Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
520. 54º40' or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
521. James K. Polk
President known for promoting Manifest Destiny.
522. Slidell mission to Mexico
Appointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
523. Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles noth of the Rio Gannde. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
524. General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk’s orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor’s forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
525. Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
526. Spot Resolutions
Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
527. Stephen Kearny
Commander of the Army of the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to California, securing New Mexico.
528. John C. Fremont
Civil governor of California, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought he could take California by himself before the war began and become a hero. He failed, so he joined forces with Kearny.
529. General Winfield Scott
Led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
530. Nicholas Trist
Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
531. Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago provisions
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
532. All Mexico Movement
Benito Juarez overthrew Mexican dictator Santa Ana. Mexico began blocking American immigration (Mexico for Mexicans only).
533. Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago)
534. Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
535. Carolina and Creole Affairs
A group of Canadian malcontents determined to free Canada from British rule made looting forays into Canada from an island being supplied by a ship from Carolina. The Canadians burned the vessel and killed an American on board. The Creole Affair involved slaves who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas, where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain refused. The ship stolen by the slaves was the Creole.
536. Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
537. John Jacob Astor (1763-1848)
His American fur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant fur trading company in America. Helped finance the War of 1812. First millionaire in America (in cash, not land).
538. Oregon Fever
1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
539. Willamette Valley
The spot where many settlers travelling along the Oregon trailed stopped.
540. Oregon Territory
The territory comprised what arenow the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818.
541. 49th Parallel
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
542. Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
543. Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
544. Gadsen Purchase
1853 - After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
545. Hegemony
Domination or leadership - especially the predominant influence of one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states.
546. "Transportation Revolution"
By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities' economies together.
547. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
548. Boston Associates
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
549. Lowell Factory
Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
550. Factory girls
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
551. Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper
McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
552. Elias Howe (1819-1869)
Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
553. Ten-Hour Movement
Labor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked from sun up to sundown.
554. Clipper ships
Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They were developed in the second quarter of the 1800s. These ships were unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western U.S.
555. Cyrus Field (1819-1892)
An American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, a submarine cable was successfully laid between Newfoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.
556. Robert Fulton, steamships
A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
557. Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
558. Walker Tariff
1846 - Sponsored by Polk's Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered the tariff. It introduced the warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.
559. Independent Treasury System, Van Buren and Polk
Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
560. American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
561. Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War.
562. Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
563. William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
A militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
564. The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
565. American Anti-slavery Society
Formed in 1833, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
566. Theodore Weld (1802-1895)
Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as It Is" (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
567. Theodore Parker (1810-1860)
A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as "the keeper of the public's conscience". His advocation for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular.
568. The Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
569. Elijah Lovejoy (1802-1837)
An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
570. Wendell Phillips
An orator and associate of Garrison, Phillips was an influential abolitionist lecturer.
571. Nat Turner's Insurrection
1831 - Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
572. David Walker (1785-1830), "Walker's Appeal"
A Boston free black man who published papers against slavery.
573. Sojourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
574. Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800)
A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including Gabriel.
575. Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
576. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
577. Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia
An iron mill in Richmond. It was run by skilled slave labor and was among the best iron foundry in the nation. It kept the Confederacy alive until 1863 as its only supplier of cannons. It was also the major munitions supplier of the South and was directly responsible for the capitol of the Confederacy being moved to Richmond.
578. Mountain Whites in the South
Rednecks. Usually poor, aspired to be successful enough to own slaves. Hated Blacks and rich Whites. Made up much of the Confederate Army, fighting primarily for sectionalism and states' rights.
579. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
580. "King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
581. Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
582. John Sutter (1803-1880)
A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
583. Forty-Niners
Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
584. California applies for admission as a state
Californians were so eager to join the union that they created and ratified a constitution and elected a government before receiving approval from Congress. California was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free.
585. Compromise of 1850: provisions, impact
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
586. Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
587. Anthony Burns (1834-1862)
A slave who fled from Virginia to Boston in 1854. Attempts to return him led to unrest in Boston. He was successfully returned at a cost $100,000. He was bought a few months later by a Boston group intent on setting him free.
588. Ablemann v. Booth
1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
589. Webster's 7th of March Speech
Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned thatg the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
590. Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
591. Henry Clay (1777-1852)
Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
592. John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
593. Underground Railroad
A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
594. Harriet Tubman (1821-1913)
A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom.
595. Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
596. Election of 1852: end of the Whig party
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party.
597. Perry and Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the U.S. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese were so impressed that they signed the Treaty of Kanagania in 1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.
598. Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
599. Kansas - Nebraska Act
1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
600. Birth of the Republican Party
A coalition of the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. The party's Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election.
601. Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
602. Popular Sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
603. Thirty-six, thirty line
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36º30' N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
604. Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
Democrat - James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican - John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig - Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
605. "Bleeding Kansas"
Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War.
606. Lawrence, Kansas
1855 - Where the pro-slavery /anti-slavery war in Kansas began ("Bleeding Kansas or Kansas Border War).
607. "Beecher's Bibles"
During the Kansas border war, the New England Emigrant Aid Society sent rifles at the instigation of fervid abolitionists like the preacher Henry Beecher. These rifles became known as "Beecher's Bibles".
608. John Brown's Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
609. Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
610. New England Emigrant Aid Company
Promoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move.
611. Sumner-Brooks Affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
612. Lecompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.
613. Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
614. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (pronounced "Tawny")
As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
615. Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign
A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
616. Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
617. Panic of 1857
Began with the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company and spread to the urban east. The depression affected the industrial east and the wheat belt more than the South.
618. George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society
The most influential propagandist in the decade before the Civil War. In his Sociology (1854), he said that the capitalism of the North was a failure. In another writing he argued that slavery was justified when compared to the cannibalistic approach of capitalism. Tried to justify slavery.
619. Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
620. Lincoln's "House Divided" speech
In his acceptance speech for his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: "A house divided against itself cannot stand." He continued, "I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do believe it will cease to be divided."
621. John Brown, Harper's Ferry Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
622. Election of 1860: candidates, parties, issues
Republican - Abraham Lincoln. Democrat - Stephan A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union - John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
623. Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery).
624. John Bell
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.
625. John Breckinridge (1821-1875)
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states' rights.
626. Republican Party: 1860 platform, supporter, leaders
1860 platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.
627. Buchanan and the Secession Crisis
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
628. Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
629. Border states
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
630. South's advantages in the Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
631. North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
632. Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
633. Bull Run
At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.
634. Monitor and the Merrimac
First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Cheasepeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor - Union. Merrimac - Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their ship was the CSS Virginia.
635. Lee, Jackson
General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
636. Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade
Union generals in the Civil War.
637. Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox
Battle sites of the Civil War. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months. Antietam - turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Appomattox - Lee surrendered to Grant.
638. Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens
Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
639. Northern blockade
Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.
640. Cotton versus Wheat
Cotton was a cash crop and could be sold for large amounts of money. Wheat was mainly raised to feed farmers and their animals. The North had to choose which to grow.
641.Copperheads
Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
642. Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham
An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South.
643. Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
644. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking, tariff, homestead, transcontinental railroad
With no Southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressman passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.
645. Conscription draft riots
The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
646. Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
647. Charles Francis Adams
Minister to Great Britain during the Civil War, he wanted to keep Britain from entering the war on the side of the South.
648. Great Britain: Trent, Alabama, Laird rams, "Continuous Voyage"
A Union frigate stopped the Trent, a British steamer and abducted two Confederate ambassadors aboard it. The Alabama was a British-made vessel and fought for the Confederacy, destroying over 60 Northern ships in 22 months. The Laird rams were ships specifically designed to break blockades; the English prevented them from being sold to the South.
649. Election of 1864: candidates, parties
Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)
650. Financing of the war effort by North and South
The North was much richer than the South, and financed the war through loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The South had financial problems because they printed their Confederate notes without backing them with gold or silver.
651. Clara Barton
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
652. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
653. Assassination of April 14, 1865
While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth.
654. John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
655. Ex Parte Milligan
1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshall law.
656. Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
657. Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis Manifesto
1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
658. Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen)
Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.
659. Reconstruction Acts
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
660. State suicide theory
The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South.
661. Conquered territory theory
Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
662. The unreconstructed South
The South's infrastructure had been destroyed - manufacturing had almost ceased. Few banks were solvent and in some areas starvation was imminent. General Sherman had virtually destroyed large areas on his "march to the sea".
663. Black codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
664. Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
665. Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
666. Charles Sumner
The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
667. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
668. Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
669. General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
670. Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
671. Civil Rights Act
1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
672. Thirteenth Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
673. Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
674. Fifteenth Amendment
Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
675. Tenure of Office Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
676. Impeachment
To bring charges against a public official. Johnson was impeached, but was saved from being taken out of office by one vote.
677. Chief Justice Chase
Chief Justice in 1868, he upheld Republican Reconstruction laws and ruled that paper money was not a legal substitute for specie.
678. Secretary of War Stanton
As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
679. Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
680. Carpetbaggers
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
681. Purchase of Alaska
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
682. Secretary of State William Seward
1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.
683. Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
684. Maximillian in Mexico
European prince appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.
685. Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
686. Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
687. Treaty of Washington
1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain. Canada gave the U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
688. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
A member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington.
689. Election of 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley
Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
690. Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
691. Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
692. Solid South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
693. Sharecropping, Crop Lien System
Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.
694. Segregation
The separation of blacks and whites, mostly in the South, in public facilities, transportation, schools, etc.
695. Hiram R. Revels
North Carolina free black, he became a senator in 1870.
696. Blanche K. Bruce
Became a senator in 1874 -- the only black to be elected to a full term until Edward Brooke in 1966.
697. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
698. Dred Scott v. Sandford
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
699. Ablemann v. Booth<br> 1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
700. Mississippi v. Johnson
Mississippi wanted the president to stop enforcing the Reconstruction Acts because they were unconstitutional. The Supreme Court decided that the Acts were constitutional and the states must obey them.
701. Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
702. Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
703. Whiskey Ring
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
704. "Waving the bloody shirt"
The practice of reviving unpleasant memories from the past. Representative Ben F. Butler waved before the House a bloodstained nightshirt of a carpetbagger flogged by Klan members.
705. Liberal Republicans: Carl Schurz, Horace Greeley
Schurz and Greeley were liberal republicans - they believed in civil service reform, opposed corruption, wanted lower tariffs, and were lenient toward the South.
706. Panic of 1873, depression
Unrestrained speculation on the railroads let to disaster - inflation and strikes by railroad workers. 18,000 businesses failed and 3 million people were out of work. Federal troops were called in to end the strike.
707. Election of 1876: candidates, electoral commission
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
708. Compromise of 1877
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
709. Greenbacks
Name given to paper money issued by the government during the Civil War, so called because the back side was printed with green ink. They were not redeemable for gold, but $300 million were issued anyway. Farmers hit by the depression wanted to inflate the notes to cover losses, but Grant vetoed an inflation bill and greenbacks were added to permanent circulation. In 1879 the federal government finally made greenbacks redeemable for gold.
710. Ohio Idea
1867 - Senator George H. Pendleton proposed an idea that Civil War bonds be redeemed with greenbacks. It was not adopted.
711. Legal Tender cases
The Supreme Court debated whether it was constitutional for the federal government to print paper money (greenbacks).
712. Species Resumption Act
1879 - Congress said that greenbacks were redeemable for gold, but no one wanted to redeem them for face gold value. Because paper money was much more convenient than gold, they remained in circulation.
713. Greenbacks - Labor Party
Founded in 1878, the party was primarily composed of prairie farmers who went into debt during the Panic of 1873. The Party fought for increased monetary circulation through issuance of paper currency and bimetallism (using both gold and silver as legal tender), supported inflationary programs in the belief that they would benefit debtors, and sought benefits for labor such as shorter working hours and a national labor bureau. They had the support of several labor groups and they wanted the government to print more greenbacks.
714. Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
715. Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
716. Election of 1884: James G. Blaine, Grover Cleveland
Democrat - Cleveland - 219 electoral, 4,911,017 popular. Republican - Blaine - 182 electoral, 4,848,334 popular. Butler - 175,370 popular. St. John - 150,369 popular. Cleveland was the first Democrat to be president since Buchanan. He benefitted from the split in the Republican Party.
717. Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
718. Roscoe Conkling (1829-1888)
A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.
719. Half-breeds
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
720. Mugwumps
Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.
721. "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
James Gillespie Blaine said that the Irish Catholics were people of "rum, Romanism, and rebellion." It offended many people and cost Blaine the election.
722. High tariffs
Levied against imported and manufactured goods, once again hurting the South and the economy to raise money for the federal government and help Northern industries.
723. Treasury surplus
During the Reconstruction, the treasury was in deficit, so it cut back spending to build up the treasury and ended with a surplus.
724. Pensions, Garfield
Congress granted pensions to all veterans with any disability for any reason. Cleveland vetoed it, which contributed to his not being reelected. He didn't think Confederate veterans should receive pensions.
725. Secret ballot / Australian ballot
First used in Australia in the 1880s. All candidates names were to be printed on the same white piece of paper at the government's expense and polling was to be done in private. It was opposed by the party machines, who wanted to be able to pressure people into voting for their candidates, but it was implemented and is still in use.
726. Cleveland's 1887 Annual Address
Emphasized civil service reform, and fought high tariffs.
727. Election of 1888: candidates, issues
Republican - Harrison - 233 electoral; 5,444,337 popular. Democrat - Cleveland - 168 electoral, 5,540,050 popular. Fisk - 250,125 popular. Harrison said he would protect American industry with a high tariff. Issues were civil service reform and tariffs.
728. Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901), Billion Dollar Congress, Czar Reed
Harrison: Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president. Billion Dollar Congress: The first session where Congress spent over $1 billion. Czar Reed: The nickname of Thomas Braket, Speaker of the House 1889-1891. He tried to increase the power of the Speaker.
729. McKinley Tariff
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
730. Election of 1892: candidates, issues
Democrat - Grover Cleveland and V.P. Adlai E. Stevenson - 5,554,414 popular; 227 electoral votes. Republican - Benjamin Harrison and V.P. Whitecar Reed - 145 electoral votes. National Prohibition Convention - John Brownwell and V.P. James B. Cranfil. Socialist Labor Convention - Simon Wing and V.P. Charles H. Machett. Republicans wanted a high protective tariff, but Democrats opposed it. Democrats secured a majority in both houses.
731. Morgan bond transaction
John Pierpont Morgan took over the Susquehanna and Albany railroads. He won the confidence of European investors and used them for investment capital. He then took over steel companies and bought Carnegie's interests in steel. This was the largest personal financial transaction in U.S. history. Morgan combined the companies to form the U.S. Steel Company, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Eased the Panic of 1873.
732. Wilson - Gorman Tariff
Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.
733. Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company, 1895
The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
734. Dingley Tariff
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
735. Laissez-faire
A theory that the economy does better without government intervention in business.
736. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations
Promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics.
737. Union Pacific Railroad, Central Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific: Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west. Central Pacific: Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.
738. "Credit Mobilier"
A construction company owned by the larger stockholders of the Union Pacific Railroad. After Union Pacific received the government contract to build the transcontinental railraod, it "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual construction, charging the federal government nearly twice the actual cost of the project. When the scheme was discovered, the company tried to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the investigation. This percipitated the biggest bribery scandal in U.S. history, and led to greater public awareness of government corruption.
739. "Robber Barons"
The owners of big businesses who made large amounts of money by cheating the federal government.
740. John D. Rockefeller
Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
741. Standard Oil Company
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
742. Horizontal consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of one aspect of an entire industry or manufacturing process, such as a monopoly on auto assembly lines or on coal mining, for example.
743. Andrew Carnegie, Henry Clay Frick
Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.
744. Vertical consolidation
A form of monopoly that occurs when one person or company gains control of every step of the manufacturing process for a single product, such as an auto maker that also owns its own steel mills, rubber plantations, and other companies that supply its parts. This allows the company to lower its costs of production and drive its competition out of business.
745. Charles Schwab (1862-1939)
Founder and president of the U.S. Steel Corporation. First president of the American Iron and Steel Institute in 1901, he was also involved in the stock market.
746. Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
747. Alexander Graham Bell
1876 - Invented the telephone.
748. Leland Stanford (1824-1893)
Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad.
749. James J. Hill, Great Northern Railroad
Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads.
750. Cornelius Vanderbilt, New York Central Railroad
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.
751. Bessemer process
Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
752. U.S. Steel Corporation, Elbert H. Gary
Gary was corporate lawyer who became the U.S. Steel Corporation president in 1898. U.S. Steel was the leading steel producer at the time.
753. Mesabi Range
A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.
754. Pierpont Morgan
Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).
755. Gustavus Swift
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
756. Phillip Armour (1832-1901)
Pioneered the shipping of hogs to Chicago for slaughter, canning, and exporting of meat.
757. James B. Duke
Made tobacco a profitable crop in the modern South, he was a wealthy tobacco industrialist.
758. Andrew Mellon (1855-1937)
One of the wealthiest bankers of his day, and along with other business tycoons, controlled Congress.
759. "Stock watering"
Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.
760. Jay Cooke Company
The Panic of 1873 was caused by the failure of this company, which had invested too heavily in railroads and lost money when the railroads cheated the federal government.
761. Jay Gould and Jim Fiske
Stock manipulators and brothers-in-law of President Grant, they made money selling gold.
762. Pools
Agreement between railroads to divide competition. Equalization was achieved by dividing traffic.
763. Rebates
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
764. Trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
765. Holding companies
Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
766. Fourteenth Amendment's "Due Process Clause"
No state shall deny a person life, liberty, or property without due process of law. (The accused must have a trial.)
767. Munn v. Illinois
1877 - The Supreme Court ruled that an Illinois law that put a ceiling on warehousing rates for grain was a constitutional exercise of the state's power to regulate business. It said that the Interstate Commerce Commission could regulate prices.
768. Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.
769. Interstate Commerce Act, Interstate Commerce Commission
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
770. Long haul, short haul
Different railroad companies charged separate rates for hauling goods a long or short distance. The Interstate Commerce Act made it illegal to charge more per mile for a short haul than a long one.
771. Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
772. E.C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress.
773. National Labor Union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
774. William Sylvis
Leader of the National Labor Union.
775. Knights of Labor: Uriah Stephens, Terence Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
776. American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions.
777. Samuel Gompers
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
778. Collective bargaining
Discussions held between workers and their employers over wages, hours, and conditions.
779. Injunction
A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.
780. Strikes
The unions' method for having their demands met. Workers stop working until the conditions are met. It is a very effective form of attack.
781. Boycotts
People refuse to buy a company's product until the company meets demands.
782. Closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
783. Black list
A list of people who had done some misdeed and were disliked by business. They were refused jobs and harassed by unions and businesses.
784. Yellow Dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
785. Company unions
People working for a particular company would gather and as a unit demand better wages, working conditions and hours.
786. Great Railroad Strike
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
787. Haymarket Square Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
788. John Peter Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
789. Homestead Strike
The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands.
790. Pinkertons
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
791. American Railway Union
Led by Eugene Debs, they started the Pullman strike, composed mostly of railroad workers.
792. Pullman Strike, 1894
Started by enraged workers who were part of George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman fired three workers on a committee. Pullman refused to negotiate and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders for Pullman cars slacked off, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store prices.
793. Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
794. Richard Olney
Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.
795. Danbury Hatters Strike
Workers in a hat-making factory went on strike.
796. George Washington Plunkitt
He was head of Tammany Hall and believed in "Honest Graft".
797. "Honest Graft"
Justified bribery or cheating.
798. Boss Tweed
Large political boss and head of Tammany Hall, he controlled New York and believed in "Honest Graft".
799. Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
800. Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
801. "New Imigration"
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
802. Dillingham Commission Report
1911 - Congressional commission set up to investigate demands for immigration restriction. It's report was a list of complains against the "new immigrants."
803. Streetcar suburbs
The appearance of the streetcar made living within the heart of the city unnecessary. People began moving to the edges of the cities and commuting to work by streetcar. Led to growth of suburbs.
804. Tenements
Urban apartment buildings that served as housing for poor factory workers. Often poorly constructed and overcrowded.
805. Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
806. Denis Kearney
Irish immigrant who settled in San Fransicso and fought for workers rights. He led strikes in protest of the growing number of imported Chineseworkers who worked for less than the Americans. Founded the Workingman's Party, which was later absorbed into the Granger movement.
807. Chinese Exclusion Law 1882 - Denied citizenship to Chinese in the U.S. and forbid further immigration of Chinese. Supported by American workers who worried about losing their jobs to Chinese immagrants who would work for less pay.
808. American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
809. Literacy tests
Immigrants were required to pass a literacy test in order to gain citizenship. Many immigrants were uneducated or non-English-speakers, so they could not pass. Meant to discourage immigration.
810. James Bryce, The American Commonwealth
Opposed the Nativist sentiment and promoted the "melting pot" idea of American culture.
811. John A. Roebling (1806-1869), Brooklyn Bridge
Roebling pioneered the development of suspension bridges and designed the Brooklyn Bridge, but died before its construction was completed.
812. Louis Sullivan (1856-1914)
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
813. Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
814. Ashcan School
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
815. Armory Show
1913 - The first art show in the U.S., organized by the Ashcan School. Was most Americans first exposure to European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, and caused a modernist revolution in American art.
816. Anthony Comstock (1844-1915)
Social reformer who worked against obscenity.
817. Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
Presented the theory of evolution, which proposed that creation was an ongoing process in which mutation and natural selection constantly give rise to new species. Sparked a long-running religious debate over the issue of creation.
818. Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
819. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
820. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British, developed a system of philosophy based on the theory of evolution, believed in the primacy of personal freedom and reasoned thinking. Sought to develop a system whereby all human endeavours could be explained rationally and scientifically.
821. William Graham Sumner, What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
Economist and sociologist.
822. Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1889)
Minister who worked against slavery in Kansas Border War, promoted civil service reform.
823. Rev. Russel Conwell, "Acres of Diamonds"
Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
824. Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899)
Evangelist who preached the social gospel.
825. Rev. Josiah Strong
Enivisioned a "final competition of races," in which the Anglo-Saxons would emerge victorious.
826. Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
827. Social gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
828. Salvation Army, YMCA
Provided food, housing, and supplies for the poor and unemployed.
829. Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.
830. Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.
831. Rerum Novarum
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
832. Charles Sheldon, In His Steps Proofed Through Here
A very popular collection of sermons which encouraged young people to emulate Christ.
833. Mary Baker Eddy (1871-1910)
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.
834. Chautauqua Movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.
835. Johns Hopkins University
A private university which emphasized pure research. It's entrance requirements were unusually strict -- applicants needed to have already earned a college degree elsewhere in order to enroll.
836. Charles W. Elliot, Harvard University
He was the president of Harvard University, and started the policy of offering elective classes in addition to the required classes.
837. Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903)
America's greatest theoretical scientist, he studied thermodynamics and physical chemistry.
838. Morril Act
1862 - Set aside public land in each state to be used for building colleges.
839. Land grant colleges: A&M, A&T, A&I
These were colleges built on the land designated by the Morril Act of 1862.
840. Hatch Act
1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.
841. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards, 2000-1887
1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. woudl become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.
842. Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.
843. The single tax
A flat tax proposed by Henry George. (A flat tax is one in which every person pays the same amount, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.)
844. "Gilded Age"
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
845. Nouveau riche
French for "new rich." Refered to people who had become rich through business rather than through having been born into a rich family. The nouveau riche made up much of the American upper classof the late 1800s.
846. William James
Developed the philosophy of pragmatism. One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy.
847. Pragmatism
A philosophy which focuses only on the outcomes and effects of processes and situations.
848. Edwin Lawrence Godkin (1831-1902), editor of The Nation
Political writer who founded The Nation magazine, which called for reform.
849. William Dean Howells (1837-1920)
Editor of the Atlantic Monthly, and a champion of the realist movement in fiction writing.
850. Henry James (1843-1916)
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story "The Turn of the Screw."
851. Stephen Crane (1871-1900)
Writer who introduced grim realism to the American novel. His major work, The Red Badge of Courage is a psychological study of a Civil War soldier. Crane had never been near a war when he wrote it, but later he was a reporter in the Spanish-American War.
852. Hamlin Garland
His best-known work is Middle Board, an autobiographical story of the frustrations of life. One of the first authors to write accurately and sympathetically about Native Americans.
853. Bret Harte
Wrote humorous short stories about the American West, popularized the use of regional dialects as a literary device.
854. Mark Twain
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories "local color" through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, "The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County," and stories about the American West.
856. James McNeill Whistler
(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known asWhistler's Mother.
857. Winslow Homer
A Realist painter known for his seascapes of New England.
858. Joseph Pullitzer
A muckraker who designed the modern newspaper format (factual articles in one section, editorial and opinion articles in another section).
859. William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
860. Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
861. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
862. Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women's Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
863. Alice Paul
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
864. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
A group of women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol and who worked to get laws passed against alcohol.
865. Francis Willard
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union.
866. Carry A. Nation (1846-1901)
A prohibitionist. She believed that bars and other liquor-related businesses should be destroyed, and was known for attacking saloons herself with a hatchet.
867. Clara Barton
Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War, founded the American Red Cross is 1881. See card # 651 for more information.
868. Mississippi Plan
1890 - In order to vote in Mississippi, citizens had to display the receipt which proved they had paid the poll tax and pass a literacy test by reading and interpreting a selection from the Constitution. Prevented blacks, who were generally poor and uneducated, from voting.
869. Bourbons / Redeemers
A religious movement in the South.
870. "New South," Henry Grady (1850-1889)
1886 - His speech said that the South wanted to grow, embrace industry, and eliminate racism and Confederate separatist feelings. Was an attempt to get Northern businessmen to invest in the South.
871. Joel Chandler Harris (1848-1908)
Wrote the "Uncle Remis" stories, which promoted black stereotypes and used them for humor.
872. Slaughterhouse cases
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
873. Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
874. Civil Rights cases
1883 - These state supreme court cases ruled that Constitutional amendments against discrimination applied only to the federal and state governments, not to individuals or private institutions. Thus the government could not order segregation, but restaurants, hotels, and railroads could. Gave legal sanction to Jim Crow laws.
875. Lynching
The practice of an angry mob hanging a percieved criminal without regard to due process. In the South, blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites might be lynched by white mobs.
876. Booker T. Washington (1857-1915), Tuskegee Institute
(1856-1915) An educator who urged blacks to better themselves through education and economic advancement, rather than by trying to attain equal rights. In 1881 he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
877. "The Atlanta Compromise"
Booker T. Washington's speech encouraged blacks to seek a vocational education in order to rise above their second-class status in society.
878. George Washington Carver (1860-1943)
A black chemist and director of agriculture at the Tuskegee Institute, where he invented many new uses for peanuts. He believed that education was the key to improving the social status of blacks.
879. W. E. B. DuBois (1868-1963)
A black orator and eassayist. Helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories, and took a militant position on race relations.
880. "Talented Tenth"
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks.
881. Plessy v. Ferguson, "Separate but equal"
1886 - Plessy was a black man who had been instructed by the NAACP to refuse to ride in the train car reserved for blacks. The NAACP hoped to force a court decision on segregation. However, the Supreme Court ruled against Plessy and the NAACP, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality.
882. Jim Crow laws
State laws which created a racial caste system in the South. They included the laws which prevented blacks from voting and those which created segregated facilities.
883. Disenfranchisement, Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
884. Grandfather clause
Said that a citizen could vote only if his grandfather had been able to vote. At the time, the grandfathers of black men in the South had been slaves with no right to vote. Another method for disenfranchising blacks.
885. Niagra Movement
A group of black and white reformers, including W. E. B. DuBois. They organized the NAACP in 1909.
886. Springfield, Illinois riot
1908 - A riot broke out between blacks and whites over racial equality.
887. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 by a group of black and white intellectuals.
888. "The Crisis" The NAACP's pamphlet, which borrowed the name from Thomas Paine's speech about the American Revolution.
889. Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle portion of the Louisiana Purchase region.
890. Homestead Act
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
891. Oliver H. Kelley
Worked in the Department of Agriculture and lead the Granger Movement.
892. Granger Movement
1867 - Nation Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. A group of agrarian organizations that worked to increase the political and economic power of farmers. They opposed corrupt business practices and monopolies, and supported relief for debtors. Although technically not a political party, local granges led to the creation of a number of political parties, which eventually joined with the growing labor movement to form the Progressive Party.
893. Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden
He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
894. Indian Appropriations Act
1851 - The U.S. government reorganized Indian land and moved the Indians onto reservations.
895. Plains Indians
Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
896. Chivington Massacre
November 28, 1861 - Colonel Chivington and his troops killed 450 Indians in a friendly Cheyenne village in Colorado.
897. Battle of the Little Big Horn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
898. Chief Joseph
Lead the Nez Perce during the hostilities between the tribe and the U.S. Army in 1877. His speech "I Will Fight No More Forever" mourned the young Indian men killed in the fighting.
899. Battle of Wounded Knee
1890 - The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic, were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
900. Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor
A muckracker whose book exposed the unjust manner in which the U.S. government had treated the Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.
901. Dawes Severalty Act, 1887
Also called the General Allotment Act, it tried to dissolve Indian tribes by redistributing the land. Designed to forestall growing Indian proverty, it resulted in many Indians losing their lands to speculators.
902. Frederick Jackson Turner, Frontier Thesis
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
903. Safety Valve Thesis
Proposed by Frederick Jackson Turner to explain America's unique non-European culture, held that people who couldn't succeed in eastern society could move west for cheap land and a new start.
904. Comstock Lode
Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada in 1859.
905. "Crime of 1873"
Referred to the coinage law of 1873 which eliminated silver money from circulation. Name given by people who opposed paper money.
906. Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
907. Serman Silver Purchase Act
1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the ecomony lead to a run on the ferderal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
908. Bimetalism
Use of two metals, gold and silver, for currency as America did with the Bland-Allison Act and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. Ended in 1900 with the enactment of the Gold Standard Act.
909. "Coin" Harvey
Proposed a plan for bimettalism with a standard of 16 to 1, with gold worth 16 times as much as silver.
910. Free Silver
Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
911. Depression of 1893
Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.
912. Coxey's army
1893 - Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
913. Repeal of Serman's Silver Purchase Act
1893 - Act repealed by President Cleveland to protect gold reserves.
914. Farmer's Alliance
Movement which focused on cooperation between farmers. They all agreed to sell crops at the same high prices to eliminate competition. Not successful.
915. Ocala Demands
1890 - The leaders of what would later become the Populist Party held a national convention in Ocala, Florida and adopted a platform advocating reforms to help farmers.
916. Populist Party platform, Omaha platform
Offically named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers. The part was split between South and West.
917. Tom Watson
A leader of the Populist Party in the South.
918. James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
919. "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman
A senator from South Carolina, he compared Cleveland's betrayal of the Democratic party to Judas' betrayal of Jesus.
920. Mary Ellen Lease
A speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
921. "Sockless" Jerry Simpson
A rural reformer who ran against Mary Lease in the Populist Part election in Kansas.
922. Ignatius Donnely
A leader of the Populist Party in Minnesota.
923. Williams Jenning Bryan
Three-time candidate for president for the Democratic Party, nominated because of support from the Populist Party. He never won, but was the most important Populist in American history. He later served as Woodrow Wilson's Secretary of State (1913-1915).
924. "Cross of Gold" Speech
Given by Bryan on June 18, 1896. He said people must not be "crucified on a cross of gold", referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.
925. Election of 1896: candidates and issues
William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.
926. Marcus Hanna
Leader of the Republican Party who fought to get William McKinley the Republican nomination for president.
927. Gold Standard Act
1900 - This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
928. Supreme Court cases
Legal Tender cases, Minor vs. Happensett, Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois, E. C. Knight Company case, Pollock v. Farmer's Loan & Trust Company, and In Re Debs.
929. Supreme Court: Legal Tender cases
1870, 1871 - A series of cases that challenged whether the paper "greenbacks" issued during the Civil War constituted legal tender, i.e., whether they were valid currency. The Supreme Court declared that greenbacks were not legal tender and their issuance had bee unconstitutional.
930. Supreme Court: Minor v. Happensett
1875 - Limited the right to vote to men.
931. Supreme Court: Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois
1886 - Stated that individual states can control trade in their states, but cannot regulate railroads coming through them. Congress has exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce. States cannot regulate or place restrictions on businesses which only pass through them, such as interstate transportation.
932. E. C. Knight Company case
1895 - The Supreme Court ruled that since the Knight Company's monopoly over the production of sugar had no direct effect on commerce, the company couldn't be controlled by the government. It also ruled that mining and manufacturing weren't affected by interstate commerce laws and were beyond the regulatory power of Congress. It gave E. C. Knight a legal monopoly because it did not affect trade.
933. Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Company
1895 - The court ruled the income could not be taxed. In response, Congress passed the 16th Amendment which specifically allows taxation of income (ratified 1913).
934. In Re Debs
1894 - Eugene Debs organised the Pullman strike. A federal court found him guilty of restraint of trade, stopping US mail, and disobeying a government injunction to stop the strike. He later ran for president as a candidate of the Social Democratic Party.
935. James G. Blaine, Pan-Americanism
The 1884 nomination for the Rebublican presidential candidate. Pan-Americanism stated that events in the Americans affected the U.S. and we thus had reason to intervene.
936. Venezuelan boundary dispute
Dispute between the U.S. and Britain involving the point at which the Venezuela / Columbia border was drawn. Britain eventually won the dispute.
937. Bering sea seal controversy
A dispute between the U.S. and Russia involving who could hunt seals in the Bering Sea.
938. "Yellow journalism"
Term used to describe the sensationalist newspaper writings of the time. They were written on cheap yellow paper. The most famous yellow journalist was William Randolf Hearst. Yellow journalism was considered tainted journalism - omissions and half-truths.
939. Josiah Strong, Our Country
In this book, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
940. Captain Alfred Thayler Mahan
In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on.
941. Pago Pago, Samoa
1878 - The U.S. gained the strategic port Pago Pago in Samoa for use in refueling U.S. warships overseas. It was part of building an international military presence.
942. Virginius
1873 - Spain and U.S. government got into a squabble over the Cuban-owned Virginius, which had been running guns. Spain executed several Americans who had been on board. The telegraph was used to negotiate a truce. The incident was played up by the yellow journalists.
943. Reconcentration Policy
When Cubans started to rebel, Spaniards begain to reorganize prisoners into labor camps.
944. De Lome Letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. It was played up by the yellow journalists.
945. Maine explodes
February 15, 1898 - An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
946. Assistant Secretary of Navy Theodore Roosevelt
In charge of the navy when the Maine crisis occurred, he had rebuilt the navy and tried to start a war with Cuba.
947. Commodore Dewey, Manila Bay
May 1, 1898 - Commodore Dewey took his ship into Manila Bay, in the Philippine Islands, and attacked the Spanish Pacific fleet there. The U.S. had been planning to take this strategic port in the Pacific. Dewey caught the Spanish at anchor in the bay and sank or crippled their entire fleet.
948. Cleveland and Hawaii
President Cleveland did not want to forcibly annex Hawaii, so he waited five years to do so. McKinley finally did it. Cleveland felt the annexation overstepped the federal government's power.
949. Queen Liliuokalani
Queen of Hawaii who gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. Deposed by American settlers in 1893.
950. Annexation of Hawaii
By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as naval ports.
951. Rough Riders, San Juan Hill
1898 - Theodore Roosevelt formed the Rough Riders (volunteers) to fight in the Spanish- American War in Cuba. They charged up San Juan Hill during the battle of Santiago. It made Roosevelt popular.
952. Treaty of Paris
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
953. American Anti-Imperialist League
A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists.
954. Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba
The U.S. acquired these territories from Spain through the Treaty of Paris (1898), which ended the Spanish-American War.
955. Walter Reed
Discovered that the mosquito transmitted yellow fever and developed a cure. Yellow fever was the leading cause of death of American troops in the Spanish-American War.
956. Insular cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
957. Teller Amendment
April 1896 - U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
958. Platt Amendment
A rider to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901, it specified the conditions under which the U.S. could intervene in Cuba's internal affairs, and provided that Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence. Its provisions where later incorporated into the Cuban Constitution.
959. Protectorate
A weak country under the control and protection of a stronger country. Puerto Rico, Cuba, etc. were protectorates of the U.S.
960. Aguinaldo, Philippine Insurrection
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) led a Filipino insurrection against the Spanish in 1896 and assisted the U.S. invasion. He served as leader of the provisional government but was removed by the U.S. because he wanted to make the Philippines independent before the U.S. felt it was ready for independence.
961. Secretary of State John Hay, Open Door notes
September, 1899 - Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them to offer assurance that they would respect the principle of equal trade opportunities, specifically in the China market.
962. Spheres of influence
Region in which political and economic control is exerted by on European nation to the exclusion of all others. Spheres of influence appeared primarily in the East, and also in Africa.
963. Boxer Rebellion
1900 - a secret Chinese society called the Boxers because their symbol was a fist revolted against foreigners in their midst and laid siege to foreign legislations in Beijing.
964. Extraterritoriality
In the 1920's, China wated an end to the exemption of foreigners accused of crimes from China's legal jurisdiction.
965. Most Favored Nation Clause
Part of RTA Act in 1834, allowed a nation to make a special agreement with another nation and give them a preferential low tariff rate.
966. Election of 1900: candidates, issues
Republican, William McKinley defeated Democrate, Williams Bryan. The issue was imperialism.
967. Roosevelt's Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt said, "walk softly and carry a big stick." In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen. It was his foreign policy in Latin America.
968. U.S.S. Oregon
Warship involved in Spanish-American blockade in Cuba in 1898. Went from Cuba to the Philippines by going around the Southern tip of South America. Showed that we need a better route between the Atlantic and the Pacific.
969. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
970. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
1901 - Great Britain recognized U.S. Sphere of Influence over the Panama canal zone provided the canal itself remained neutral. U.S. given full control over construction and management of the canal.
971. Hay-Herran Treaty
Kept the purchase price of the canal strip in Panama the same but enlarged the area from 6 to 10 miles.
972. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 - U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.
973. Panama Revolution
The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.
974. Panama Canal
Buit to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster.
975. Goethals and Gorgas
1906 - Army colonels who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal.
976. Venezuelan Crisis
1902 - England, Germany and Italy had blockaded Venezuelan ports because Latin American countries failed to make payments on debts owed to foreign banks. U.S. invoked the Monroe Doctrine and pressured the European powers to back off.
977. Drago Doctrine
Argentine jurist, Luis Drago, proposed that European countries could not use force to collect debts owed by countries in the Americas. They could not blockade South American ports. Adopted as part of the Hague Convention in 1907.
978. Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. would act as international policemen. An addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
979. "Colossus of the North"
1906 - Relations between U.S. and Canada including a reciprocal trade agreement. Tight relations made the U.S. and Canada a "Colossus."
980. Dominican Republic
In 1905, the U.S. imposed financial restrictions upon this Caribbean nation. Part of making sure Latin America traded with the U.S. and not Europe.
981. Russo-Japanese War, Treaty of Portsmouth
Japan had attacked the Russian Pacific fleet over Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Mancharia after the Boxer Rebellion (1904-1905) War fought mainly in Korea. Japan victorious, the U.S. mediated the end of the war. Negotiating the treaty in the U.S. increased U.S. prestige. Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize for the mediation.
982. San Francisco School Board Incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
983. Elihu Root
Secretary of War under Roosevelt, he reorganized and monderized the U.S. Army. Later served as ambassador for the U.S. and won the 1912 Nobel Peace Prize.
984. Gentlemen's Agreement
In 1907 Theodore Roosevelt arranged with Japan that Japan would voluntarily restrict the emmigration of its nationals to the U.S.
985. Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
986. Root-Takahira Agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
987. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
988. Democracy, efficiency, pragmatism
Three characteristics that the U.S. felt made them superior to other countries. Many U.S. cities in the 1900 to 1920 instituted modern "scientific" political systems, such as the use of professional city managers, to replace inefficient traditional machine politics. The U.S. tried to spread there ideas abroad.
989. "Muckrakers"
Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen, etc. Name coined by Teddy Roosevelt in 1906.
990. Henry Demarest Lloyd (1847-1903), Wealth Against Commonwealth
American writer, he won fame for revealing illegal business practices in the U.S. in the late 1800's. Said many corporations put their interest above the good of the workers. Muckraker novel.
991. Thorstien Velben, The Theory of the Leisure Class
An economist, he believed that society was always evolving, but not that the wealthiest members of society were the "fittest." Attacked the behavior of the wealthy. Muckraker novel.
992. Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Early 1900's writer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.
993. Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Shame of the Cities
A muckraker novel concerning the poor living conditions in the cities.
994. Frank Norris (1870-1902), The Octopus
A leader of the naturalism movement in literature, he believed that a novel should serve a moral purpose. Wrote The Octopus in 1901 about how railroads controlled the lives of a group of California farmers. A muckraker novel.
995. Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), History of the Standard Oil Company
This 1904 book exposed the monpolistic practices of the Standard Oil Company. Strengthened the movement for outlawing monopolies. A muckraker novel.
996. John Spargo, The Bitter Cry of the Children
Journalist and novelist, he wrote of the unfair treatment of children used as child labor. Stressed better education, better schools and teachers. A muckraker novel.
997. David Graham Phillips, The Treason of the Senate
A muckraker novel, it publicized corruption in the Senate after doing research on government leaders.
998. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Women and Economics
She urged women to work outside the home to gain economic independence. Attacked the traditional role of homemaker for women.
999. John Dewey (1859-1952): the school and society, "progressive education", "learning by doing"
American philosopher and educator, he led the philosophical movement called Pragmatism. Influenced by evolution, he believed that only reason and knowledge could be used to solve problems. Wanted educational reforms.
1000. Oliver Wendel Holmes, Jr.
A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
1001. Margaret Sanger (1883-1966)
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
1002. Edward Ross (1866-1951)
Sociologist who promoted "social psychology," the belief that social environment affected the behavior of individuals. He believed that practical solutions to current problems should be derived through the united efforts of church, state and science, and that the citizens should actively try to cure social ills rather than sit passively and wait for corrections.
1003. Richard Ely (1854-1943)
He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social injustice.
1004. Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.
1005. Direct Primary
An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
1006. 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th Amendments
1913 - 16th Amendment authorized Congress to levy an income tax. 1913 - 17th Amendment gave the power to elect senators to the people. Senators had previously been appointed by the legislatures of their states. 1919 - 18th Amendment prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. 1920 - 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
1007. Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948)
Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.
1008. Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
1009. Anti-Saloon League
National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.
1010. Square Deal
Roosevelt used this term to declare that he would use his powers as president to safeguard the rights of the workers.
1011. Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902
Authorized the use of federal money to develop the west, it helped to protect national resources.
1012. Forest Reserve Act, 1891
First national forest conservation policy, authorized the president to set aside areas of land for national forests.
1013. Anthracite Coal Strike, 1902, George F. Baer
Large strike by coal miners. Baer led the miner's union at the time.
1014. Elkins Act, 1903, rebates
This strengthened earlier federal legislation that outlawed preferential pricing through rebates. Rebates are returns of parts of the amount paid for goods or services, serving as a reduction or discount. This act also prohibited railroads from transporting goods they owned. As a dodge around previous legislation, railroads were buying goods and transporting them as if they were their own.
1015. Hepburn Act, 1906
It imposed stricter control over railroads and expanded powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission, including giving the ICC the power to set maximum rates.
1016. Mann-Elkins Act, 1910
Signed by Taft, it bolstered the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and supported labor reforms. It gave the ICC the power to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.
1017. "Trustbuster"
Nicknamed for Teddy Roosevelt, this is a federal official who seeks to dissolve monopolistic trusts through vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws.
1018. Northern Securities Company case
The Supreme Court ordered this company to dissolve because it was a trust.
1019. Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
1020. Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
1021. Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
1022. Conservation Conference, 1908
An environmental conference to study the nation's natural resources and how to conserve them.
1023. Panic of 1907
Caused by mistrust for and lowered confidence in bankers.
1024. Election of 1908
Taft, Republican, won over Byran, Democrat, because of his support of Roosevelt.
1025. Mark Hanna (1839-1904)
Prominent Republican senator and businessman, he was Republican campaign manager.
1026. Scientific Management, Frederick W. Taylor
1911 - Increased industrial output by rationalizing and refining the production process.
1027. Wisconsin, "Laboratory of Democracy"
Wisconsin was called the "Laboratory of Democracy" because many of the reform ideas of the Progressive era came out of Wisconsin, specifically from Robert M. LaFollette.
1028. Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
1029. Regulatory commissions
Formed to set safety standards and to enforce fair practices of business competition for the sake of the U.S. public.
1030. Florence Kelley, consumerism
Founded the National Consumer's League, which wanted legislation to protect consumers from being cheated or harmed by big business.
1031. Home Rule for cities
The idea was that the people of a city should decide how the city is run.
1032. Tom Johnson, Sam (Golden Rule) Jones, Brand Witlock, Hazen Pingree
Mayors for social reform, they wanted a reform of values over more legislation.
1033. City Manager Plan, Commission Plan
Legislation designed to break up political machines and replace traditional political management of cities with trained professional urban planners and managers.
1034. William Howard Taft
27th President (1908-1912), he was the only man to serve as both President of the U.S. and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Overweight, he was the only president to get stuck in the White House bathtub. Roosevelt supported he in 1908, but later ran against him.
1035. Department of Labor
Originally started in 1903 as the Department of Commerce and Labor, it was combined with the Bureau of Corporations in 1913 to create the Department of Labor
1036. Payne-Aldrich Tariff, 1909
With the fear of foreign competition gone, it lowered rates to 38%. Democrats felt it did not go far enough and passed the Underwood Tariff in 1913 to further lower taxes.
1037. Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Cabinet members who had fought over conservation efforts and how much effort and money should be put into conserving national resources. Pinchot, head of the Forestry Department, accused Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior, of abandoning federal conservation policy. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot.
1038. Uncle Joe Cannon (1836-1926), Old Guard
Speaker of the House, he could make or break legislation form 1903 to 1910. He represented the Old Guard, which controlled Congress, and his arbitrary tactics led to the adoption of resolutions in 1910 limiting the power of the Speaker.
1039. Senator George Norris (1861-1944)
Congressman from Nebraska, he was a reformer Republican who helped lead the rules change of 1910 which ended the arbitrary power of the Speaker. Known as the father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, he was author of the 20th Amendment. Later, while in the Senate, he was an isolationist who tried to keep the U.S. out of WW I.
1040. Rule of Reason: Standard Oil case, American Tobacco case
1911 - Supreme Court allowed restrictions on competition through the Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
1041. "Dollar Diplomacy"
Taft and Knox cam up with it to further foreign policy in the U.S. in 1909-1913 under the Roosevelt Corollary. It was meant to avoid military intervention by giving foreign countries monetary aid.
1042. Secretary of State Knox (1853-1920)
Developed dollar diplomacy with Taft, he encouraged and protected U.S. investment abroad.
1043. Manchurian Railroad Scheme
The U.S. planned to build a railroad to transport American products into China. It would have allowed the U.S. to corner the China market.
1044. Roosevelt's Osawatomie, Kansas speech
Teddy Roosevelt's speech given in Kansas on his Square Deal and "Big Stick" foreign policy. Roosevelt said, "speak softly and carry a big stick."
1045. Taft-Roosevelt split
They split over idealogy. Roosevelt believed in breaking up "bad" trusts while allowing "good" trusts to continue. Taft opposed all trusts. Roosevelt wanted more involvement in foreign affairs, and Taft was an isolationist. Roosevelt ran against Taft in 1912.
1046. Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party, it was Roosevelt's party in the 1912 election. He ran as a Progressive against Republican Taft, beating him but losing to Democrat Woodrow Wilson.
1047. Woodrow Wilson, New Freedom
He believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom."
1048. Theodore Roosevelt, New Nationalism
A system win which government authority would be balanced and coordinate economic activity. Government would regulate business.
1049. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life
Editor who wrote The Promise of American Life about government authority being used to balance economic activity. This was the basis for Theodore Roosevelt's "New Nationalism."
1050. Election of 1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs, issues
Wilson, Democrat beat Roosevelt, Progressive (Bull Moose), Taft, Republican and Debs, Socialist. The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe.
1051. Daniel DeLeon, IWW, Wobblies, "Big Bull" Haywood
DeLeon denounced populists because they believed in free enterprise. Haywood was the leader of the Wobblies. The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
1052. Pujo Committee
A committee formed to decide the fate of the Philippine Islands after the Spanish-American War.
1053. Federal Reserve Act
Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson.
1054. Underwood-Simmons Tariff
October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.
1055. Income tax
The first step toward building government revenues and redistributing wealth, a tax that was levied on annual income over a specific amount and with certain legally permitted deductions.
1056. Federal Trade Commission, Cease and Desist Orders
A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.
1057. Clayton Antitrust Act, labor's Magna Carta
1914 - Extended the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 to give it more power against trusts and big business. It outlawed practices that had a dangerous likelihood of creating a monopoly, even if no unlawful agreement was involved.
1058. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925)
Served as Secretary of State under Wilson from 1913-1915, he resigned in protest of U.S. involvement in WW I.
1059. Arbitration Treaties
Negotiated by U.S. using arbitration, the mediation of a dispute, Taft promoted these agreements as an alternative to war in Latin America and Asia.
1060. Panama tolls dispute
Dispute over canal toll charge between the U.S. and Panama.
1061. Colonel House
He was openly pro-British and was sent to Europe by Wilson to mediate. He would tolerate no interference in matters of foreign policy.
1062. Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), "Brandeis Brief"
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.
1063. LaFollette Seaman's Act
LaFollette was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. He protested the cruel treatment that sailors received and led the fight for this act.
1064. Federal Highways Act, 1916
Passed by Wilson, it provided federal money to build roads. It helped to provide competition to the railroads' monopoly on public transportation.
1065. Adamson Act, 1916
Wilson pushed passage of this act which mandated an eight hour workday and time and a half for overtime.
1066. Smith-Lever Act, Smith-Hughes Act
1917-Established the U.S.'s first Food Administration with the authority to fix food prices, license distributors, coordinate purchases, oversee exports, act against hoarding and profiteering, and encourage farmers to grow more crops.
1067. Virgin Islands Purchased
1917 - U.S. bought them from Denmark and built a naval base to protect the Panama Canal and to prevent Germany's seizure of islands during WWI.
1068. Jones Act, 1916 (Philippine)
Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
1069. Jones Act, 1917 (Puerto Rico)
1917 - Puerto Ricans won U.S. citizenship and the right to elect their own upper house.
1070. Mexican Revolution, Diaz, Huerta, Carranza
Diaz was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution. Huerta, in 1913, overthrew Diaz as dictator and had him murdered. Carranza was the leader of the forces against Huerta. The Mexican Revolution was an unstable situation that led to distrust between the U.S. and Mexico.
1071. Mexican Migration to the U.S.
In the 1800's, Mexicans began moving north to work in agriculture. In the 1920's, they moved into the cities. Men outnumbered women. They faced racial discrimination from Whites.
1072. "Watchful Waiting"
Often said by President Monroe during the U.S.'s isolationism period, when the U.S. was trying to stay out of the affairs of other countries in order to avoid war.
1073. ABC Powers
1899 - Name given to Argentina, Brazil and Chile. They tried to maintain peace in South and Central America.
1074. Pancho Villa, General Pershing
1916 - Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico and Pershing was directed to follow him into Mexico. Pershing met with resistance and eventually left without finding Pancho Villa.
1075. Archangel Expedition
1917 - U.S. sent troops to the Soviet cities of Murmansk and Archangel to reinforce White Russians (non-Communists). The U.S. troops did not fight Communists, but instead defended the ports.
1076. "Sick Man of Europe," Ottoman Empire, Balkan Wars
Because the Ottoman Empire's internal authority had broken down, it was not able to keep order in Macedonia and Albania, and the Balkans were on the verge of war. After the second Balkan war, Bulgaria was forced to surrender much of the territory it won in the first Balkan war.
1077. Triple Entente; Allies
Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.
1078. Triple Alliance; Central Powers
Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.
1079. Loans to the Allies
During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.
1080. British blockade
Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.
1081. Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
1082. Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues
The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.
1083. Unrestricted submarine warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.
1084. Zimmerman note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
1085. Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik
After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).
1086. War declared, April 1917
U.S. declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.
1087. "Make the world safe for democracy"
Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.
1088. Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
1089. Bond drives
Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.
1090. War Industries Board
The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce.
1091. Bernard Baruch
Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.
1092. Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
1093. Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
1094. Eugene V. Debs imprisoned
Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
1095. AEF
American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.
1096. Selective service 1917 - Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.
1097. Black migration to northern cities
During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
1098. Aims of Allies and U.S. at Peach Conference
Allies wanted Germany to pay reparation for costs of war. Wilson brought 14 points, but only one was accomplished. The harsh punishment sent Germany into a depression and aided the rise of Hitler.
1099. Wartime manpower losses
WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.
1100. Fourteen Points
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
1101. Congressional elections of 1918
The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.
1102. Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
1103. Versailles Delegation
Led by Wilson, it fought for the inclusion of the 14 Points. Only one to be included was the League of Nations.
1104. Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando
Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.
1105. League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
1106. Collective Security
An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.
1107. New Nations, self determination
After WW I, Germany, Eastern Europe and the western portion of the former Russian Empire split into new countries. Wilson wanted them to have their own governments.
1108. Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
1109. Mandate system
A half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.
1110. Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty
Created the League of Nations.
1111. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty
One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.
1112. Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
1113. "Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette
Some Senators would have been willing to support the League of Nations if certain reservations were made to the treaty. The "Irreconcilables" voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations.
1114. Red Scare, Palmer raids
In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
1115. Strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police
In September, 1919, Boston police went on strike, then 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This badly damaged the unions.
1116. Inflation during WW I
Caused by increased taxes and the government borrowing money directly from citizens.
1117. Election of 1920: candidates, issues
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
1118. Brief depression, 1920-1921
Two years after WW I, prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.
1119. Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
1120. Normalcy
Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
1121. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
1122. Harding scandals: Charles Forbes
Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
1123. Harding scandals: Harry Daugherty
Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
1124. Harding scandals: Secretary of the Interior Fall
Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.
1125. Harding scandals: Teapot Dome
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
1126. Harding scandals: Harry Sinclair
He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.
1127. Harding's death, Coolidge takes over
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.
1128. Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
1129. Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
1130. Senator George Norris (1861-1944), Muscle Shoals
He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S., like Appalachia.
1131. Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
1132. Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
1133. Progressive Party
The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.
1134. McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
1135. Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought, flood, or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
1136. Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds
Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
1137. Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
1138. Henry L. Mencken, editor of the magazine, The American Mercury
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
1139. "The Lost Generation"
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
1140. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
1141. Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.
1142. Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy
Foremost American writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in 1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend.
1143. Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.
1144. T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land"
One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
1145. Sigmund Freud's Theories
An Austrian physician with new ideas on the human mind. One of the founders of the modern science of psychiatry, discovered the subconscious. Believed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: id - primitive impulse; ego - reason which regulates between the id and reality; and superego - morals.
1146. KDKA, Pittsburgh
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
1147. Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
1148. Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
1149. Fundamentalists
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
1150. Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
1151. Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
1152. Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
1153. Billy Sunday (1863-1935) Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
1154. Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
1155. Henry Ford, the Model T, Alfred P. Sloan
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
1156. Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
1157. The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
1158. Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin
Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
1159. New Woman, Flappers
1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
1160. Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
1161. James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.
1162. Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
1163. Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
1164. Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
1165. Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
1166. Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
1167. Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
1168. Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
1169. Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
1170. 5-3-1 ration
Tonnage ratio of the construction of large ships, it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
1171. World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations, supported by several presidents.
1172. Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
1173. Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
1174. Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
1175. Causes of the depression
Much debt, stock prices spiralling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.
1176. Depression as an international event
Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, but did not have the money.
1177. Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariff rates.
1178. Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930
Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
1179. Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
1180. Bonus Army
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
1181. "Hooverville"
Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
1182. Clark Memorandum
1928 - Under Secretary of State Reuben Clark, 286 pages were added to the Roosevelt Corollary of 1904.
1183. London Naval Conference
1909 - International Naval Conference held in London to adopt an international code of conduct for naval warfare.
1184. Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.
1185. Manchuria, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.
1186. Mexico's nationalization of oil
1938 - Mexico nationalized oil fields along the Gulf of Mexico which had been owned by investors from the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies refused to raise the wages of their Mexican employees.
1187. Ambassador Morrow
Dwight Whitney Morrow served as the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico from 1927 to 1930, during the Mexican-American diplomatic crisis.
1188. Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
1189. Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
1190. Election of 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
1191. Twentieth Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
1192. Wickersham Commission
National Law Enforcement Commission, so named after its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enforcement created by Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal of Prohibition.
1193. Twenty-First Amendment
Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect December, 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.
1194. "Bank Holiday"
March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.
1195. Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.
1196. "Relief, recovery, reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.
1197. Brain trust
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
1198. Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.
1199. Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
1200. Gold Clause Act, 1935
It voided any clause in past or future contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enforce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing circulation of gold coin.
1201. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
1202. National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)
The chief measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.
1203. National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.
1204. National Recovery Administration, "The Blue Eagle"
The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol Hugh Johnson devised to generate enthusiasm for the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions of NRA could display it in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part."
1205. Hugh Johnson
Director of the NRA.
1206. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), Second AAA
1933 - The AAA offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
1207. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.
1208. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked for the reconstruction of cities. More than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.
1209. Federal emergency Relief Administation (FERA)
Appropriated $500 million for aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader of FERA.
1210. Civil Works Admnistration (CWA)
Hired unemployed workers to do make-shift jobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on flood control, soil conservation, and forest projects under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the family of each member.
1211. Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes
Under Secertary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.
1212. Works Progress Administration (WPA), Harold Hopkins, Federal Arts Project
The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts Project had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers performing in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books and local histories.
1213. Home Owners' Local Corporation (HOLC)
Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent forclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.
1214. Federal Housing Authorities (FHA)
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
1215. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in sercurities trading.
1216. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Senator Norris
A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area.
1217. Rural Electrificaion Committee (REA)
May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.
1218. National Youth Association (NYA)
June 1935 - Established as part of the WPA to provide part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not in school find jobs.
1219. Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
1220. Recognition of the U.S.S.R.
November 1933 - In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing.
1221. Section 7A of the NRA
Provided that workers had the right to join unions and to bargain collectively.
1222. Wagner Act
May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
1223. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created to insure fairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers' desputes with unions.
1224. Fair Labor Standards Act, maxium hours and minimum wage
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
1225. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), John L. Lewis
Originally formed by leaders within the AFL who wanted to expand its principles to include workers in mass produciotn industries. In 1935, they created coalation of the 8 unions comprising the AFL and the United Mine Workers of America, led by John L. Lewis. After a split within the organization in 1938, the CIO was established as a separate entity.
1226. Sit-down strikes
The strikers occupied the workplace to prevent any production.
1227. Dust Bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
1939 - Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.
1228. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
The nation's first woman cabinet member.
1229. Elanor Roosevelt
A strong first lady who supported civil rights.
1230. Keynesian Economics
The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
1231. Deficit spending
FDR's admnistration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrow money.
1232. Monetary policy, fiscal policy
In monetary policy, government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inflation and depression. In fiscal policy, the government uses taxing and spending programs (including deficit spending) to control inflation and depression.
1233. Revenue Act
1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gft, and capital gains taxes.
1234. Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by conservatives to defend business interests and promote the open shop.
1235. Coalition of the Democratic Party: Blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South
Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shifted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still recieved strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers.
1236. Huey Long, Share the Wealth, Gerald K. Smith
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society.
1237. Father Charles Coughlin
Headed the National Union for Social Justice. Began as a religious radio broadcaster, but turned to politics and finance and attracted an audiance of millions from many faiths. Promoted inflationary currency, anti-sematism.
1238. Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
1239. Election of 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor Alfred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke
Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
1240. Literary Digest Poll
1936- An inaccurate poll taken on upcoming the presidential election. It over-represented the wealthy and thus erroneously predicted a Republican victory.
1241. Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
1242. Social Security Act
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
1243. Court-packing plan
Because the Supreme Court was striking down New Deal legislation, Roosevelt decided to curb the power of the Court by proposing a bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each who did not retire by age 70 and 1/2. At the time, 6 justices were over the age limit. Would have increased the number of justices from 9 to 15, giving FDR a majority of his own appointees on the court. The court-packing bill was not passed by Congress.
1244. Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Began to vote with the more liberal members in the liberal-dominated Supreme Court. In June a conservative justice retired and Roosevelt had an opportunity to make an appointment, shifting the Court's stance to support of New Deal legislation.
1245. "Conservative Coalition" in Congress
1938 - Coalition of conservative Democrats and Republicans who united to curb further New Deal legistators. Motivated by fears of excessive federal spending and the exspansion of federal power.
1246. Robinson-Patman Act
1937 - Amended federal anti-trust laws so as to outlaw "price discrimination," whereby companies create a monopolistic network of related suppliers and vendors who give each other more favorable prices than they do others.
1247. Miller-Tydings Act
1937 - Amended anti-trust laws to allow agreements to resell products at fxed retail prices in situations involving sales of trademarked good to a company's retail dealers.
1248. Hatch Act
1939 - Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
1249. Adkins v. Children's Hospital
1923 - The hospital fired employees because it didn't want to pay them what was reqired by the minimum wage law for women and children.
1250. Gitlow v. New York
1925 - Benjamin Gitlow was arrested for being a member of the Communist party. The New York court upheld the conviction.
1251. Schecter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.
May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Condress had improperly delegated legislative authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the federal government had exceeded its jurisduction because Schecter was not engaged in interstate commerce.
1252. Butler case
1936 - Declared AAA unconstitutional because it involved Congress levying a tax against the general wellfare.
1253. NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
April 1937 - Sumpreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards support of the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.
1254. West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.
1255. Darby Lumber Co. case
1941 - Overruled the Hamme case of 1918 by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
1256. Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. case
1936 - Upheld embargo impossed on arms destined for nations at war in the "Chaco War" that had broken out in 1932 between Bolivia and Paraguay.
1257. Montevideo Conference
The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.
1258. Rio de Janeiro Conference
1933 - Delegation of 21 Latin American leaders, including Summer Will and Aswalina Avanna. Led to the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Latin American powers.
1259. Buenos Aires Conference
1936 - The U.S. agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration.
1260. Lima Conference
1938 - Last of the Pan-American conferences held before the outbreak of World War II. Issued the Declaration of Lima asserting the unity of the Latin American nations and their determination to resist al forms of foreign agression.
1261. Declaration of Panama
1939 - Latin American governments drew a security line around the Western hemisphere and warned away foreign agressors.
1262. Act of Havana
1940 - Approved by the 21 delegates of the Pan-American Union. Declared that any Latin American nation was permitted, in the name of defense, to take over and administer any European possession in the New World.
1263. Jones Act
1916 - Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
1264. Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines
In 1933 the U.S. had proposed granting the Philippines independence in 12 years while retaining its military bases there. The Philippines rejected the offer and asked for immediate commonwealth status with independence by 1946. The U.S. accepted their offer in the Tydings-McDuffie Act.
1265. Nye Committee
Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
1266. "Merchants of Death"
Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor nations.
1267. Neutrality legislation
1935 - Upon the outbreak of war, all American exports would be embargoed for 6 months.
1936 - Gave the president the authority to determine when a state of war existed and prohibited loans to beligerents.
1937 - Gave the president the authority to determine whether a civil war was a threat to world peace and prohibited arms sales to beligerents.
1268. Spanish Civil War (1936-1935), Franco
Spain had established a leftist, democratic government in the 1930s. In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).
1269. Ethiopia
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
1270. Mussolini (1883-1945)
Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
1271. Japan attacks China, Chiang Kai-Shek
Chinese leader Kai-Shek defeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized Manchuria from China.
1272. Panay Incident
1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.
1273. Quarantine Speech
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.
1274. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism
German facist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.
1275. Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain
1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
1276. Austria annexed
March 12, 1938 - After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.
1277. Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
1278. Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
1279. Axis Powers
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
1280. "Cash and carry" revision of neutrality
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
1281. Fall of France
Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
1282. America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
1283. Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
1284. Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
1285. Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
1286. Tojo (Hideki)
Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
1287. Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
1288. Election of 1940: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Wrillkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a major debate.
1289. "Lend lease" March 1941 - Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment ot any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
1290. Atlantic Charter
August 1941 - Drawn up br FDR and Churchill with eight main principles:
&#8226; Renunciation of territorial agression
&#8226; No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned
&#8226; Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government
&#8226; Access to raw material for all nations
&#8226; World economic cooperation
&#8226; Freedom from fear and want
&#8226; Freedom of the seas
&#8226; Disarmament of agressors

1291. Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
1292. Japanese relocation
The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
1293. Bond drives
Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds ot raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.
1294. War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
1295. War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
1296. Office of Price Administration (OPA)
Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
1297. General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969)
Served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.
1298. General Douglas MacArthur
Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Recieved the Medal of Honor.
1299. Genocide, "Final Solution"
Genocide is destruction of a racial group. Hitler's "Final Solution" was the genocide of non-Aryan peoples.
1300. Second front
The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.
1301. D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
1302. Stalingrad
Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
1303. Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
1304. Casablanca Conference
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
1305. Cairo Conference
November, 1943 - A meeting of Allied leaders Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek in Egypt to define the Allies goals with respect to the war against Japan, they announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan of all territory it had gained since WW I.
1306. Tehran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
1307. "Unconditional surrender
It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.
1308. Okinawa
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
1309. Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
1310. Manhattan Project
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
1311. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)
Physics professor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission, although removed for a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer.
1312. Atomic bomb
A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.
1313. Hiroshima, Nagasaki
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
1314. Yalta Conference
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
1315. Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
1316. Partitioning of Korea, Vietnam, Germany
The U.S. played a role in dividing these countries into sections, each of which would be ruled by different authority figures and managed by one of the Allied powers.
1317. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation.
1318. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), "Iron Curtain" speech
March, 1946 - He reviewed the international response to Russian aggression and declared an "iron curtain" had descended across Eastern Europe.
1319. Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
After Lenin died in 1924, he defeated Trotsky to gain power in the U.S.S.R. He created consecutive five year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U.S.S.R. until his death.
1320. Bretton Woods Conference
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
1321. Dumbarton Oaks Conference
In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
1322. San Francisco Conference and U.N. Charter
1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the United Nations Charter.
1323. United Nations: Security Council, General Assembly, Secretary-General
Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-General, was to perform the organization's administrative work.
1324. Atomic Energy Commission
Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.
1325. Superpowers
The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.
1326. Socialism, Communism
Socialism is the social theory advocating community control of the means of production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership of all productive property.
1327. Satellites
Eastern European countries conquered by the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
1328. Nuremberg trials
19 out of 22 German civil and military leaders were found guilty of "war crimes." 12 were sentenced to death, 3 to life sentences and the rest to five to twenty year sentences.
1329. Department of Defense created
Headed by McNamara, it succeeded in bringing the armed services under tight civilian control.
1330. Voice of America, CARE
Established in 1942 as part of the Office of War Information, since 1953 it has been the international radio network of the U.S. Information Agency.
1331. Yugoslavia, Marshall Tito
An election was held in 1945 in which the moderate candidates were not allowed to run. On November 29, 1945, the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia was proclaimed. Following the adoption of a new constitution, the assembly reconstituted itself into a parliament. Tito was the Premier of the cabinet.
1332. Czechoslovakian coup
1948 - Czechoslovakia succumbed to Soviet subversion. Although moderates and Communists shared power after WWII, in 1947-1948, fearing a loss of popular support, the Communists seized control of the government and the moderates gave in to avoid civil war.
1333. Containment, George F. Kennan
A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.
1334. Truman Doctrine
1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
1335. Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
1336. Point Four
Program proposed by Truman to help the world's backwards areas.
1337. Israel created
1948 - In 1947 the UN General Assembly had approved the creation of a Jewish homeland by ending the British mandate in Palestine and partitioning it into two states: one Jewish and one Arab. On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the State of Israel, and all of the surrounding Arab nations declared war and invaded. After a short war, the Israelis gained control of the country.
1338. Berlin blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
1339. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Chartered April, 1949. The 11 member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force for enforcing its charter.
1340. Warsaw Pact
To counter the NATO buildup, the Soviets formed this military organization with the nations of Eastern Europe. Also gave Russia an excuse for garrisoning troops in these countries.
1341. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) September, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modelled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force.
1342. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)
Members were the U.S., Great Britain, Turkey, Iran and West Pakistan. Treaty to improve U.S. relations and cooperation with Latin and South America. Fairly successful, similar to ANZUS.
1343. Australia, New Zealand, U.S. (ANZUS)
Security alliance ratified in 1952 to protect against Communist China, Soviet Power, the war in Korea and Asia/Pacific decolonization.
1344. Collective security
An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.
1345. Fall of China, Mao Tse-Tung (Mao Zedong)
Mao Tse-Tung led the Communists in China. Because of the failure to form a coalition government between Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communists, civil war broke out in China after WWII. The Communists won in 1949, but the new government was not recognized by much of the world, including the U.S.
1346. State Department White Paper
1949 - Set forth the State Department's efforts and future plans to stoop Communism. With regard to China, it declared the historic policy of the U.S. to be one of friendship and aid to the Chinese people, which would be maintained both in peace and war.
1347. Chiang Kai-Shek, Formosa
Chiang and the nationalists were forced to flee to Formosa, a large island off the southern coast of China, after the Communist victory in the civil war. Throughout the 1950's, the U.S. continued to recognize and support Chiang's government in Formosa as the legitimate government of China, and to ignore the existence of the Communist People's Republic on the mainland.
1348. Quemoy, Matsu
Small islands off the coast of China occupied by the nationalists and claimed by the People's Republic. Late in 1954, the U.S. hinted at defending them because they were considered vital to the defense of Formosa, even though they were not expressly covered by the mutual defense treaty.
1349. Korean War, limited war
After WWII, Korea had been partitioned along the 38th parallel into a northern zone governed by the Soviet Union, and a southern zone controlled by the U.S. In 1950, after the Russians had withdrawn, leaving a communist government in the North, the North invaded the South. The U.N. raised an international army led by the U.S. to stop the North. It was the first use of U.N. military forces to enforce international peace. Called a limited war, because the fighting was to be confined solely to the Korean peninsula, rather than the countries involved on each side attacking one another directly.
1350. Truman-MacArthur Controversy
Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for MacArthur's public criticism of the U.S. government's handling of the war. Intended to confirm the American tradition of civilian control over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.
1351. Mahatma Gandhi
Great revolutionary who led India to independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience based upon Henry David Thoreau's doctrines.
1352. Dien Bien Phu
France had exercised colonial control of Indochina until WWII. After Japan's defeat in 1945, the Viet Minh seized Hanoi and declared the North an independent republic. War with France broke out in 1946. In the Spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. Lead to the withdrawal of France from Indochina.
1353. Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, educated in Moscow, and was an ardent Communist. Became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
1354. Bricker Amendment
Proposal that international agreements negotiated by the executive branch would become law if and only if they were approved by Congress and didn't conflict with state laws. Isolationist measure, didn't pass.
1355. John Foster Dulles
As Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.
1356. Massive Retaliation
In the 1950's after Stalin died, Dulles and Eisenhower warned the Soviets that if aggression was undertaken, the U.S. would retaliate with its full nuclear arsenal against the Soviet Union itself. However, the U.S. would not start conflicts.
1357. Brinksmanship
The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.
1358. Preemptive Strike
The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.
1359. Nikita Khrushchev, 1955 Geneva Summit
Stalin's successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.
1360. Hungarian Revolt
1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
1361. Abdul Nasser, Suez Crisis
Egypt's dictator, Abdul Gamal Nasser, a former army officer who had led the coup that overthrew King Farouk, nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956, and was attacked by British, French and Israeli forces. The U.S. intervened on behalf of Egypt. Damaged Britain and France's standing as world powers.
1362. Peaceful coexistence
Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and learn to live with each other.
1363. Eisenhower doctrine
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
1364. Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
1365. Organization of American States (OAS)
Founded in 1948 by 21 nations at the Ninth Pa-American Conference, now consists of 32 nations of Central and South America and the U.S. Settled disputes between its members and discouraged foreign intervention in American disputes.
1366. Castro's Revolution
1959 - A band of insurgents led by Fidel Castro succeeded in overthrowing the corrupt government of Juan Baptista, and Cuba became Communist.
1367. Bay of Pigs
1961 - 1400 American-trained Cuban expatriates left from Nicaragua to try to topple Castro's regime, landing at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. They had expected a popular uprising to sweep them to victory, but the local populace refused to support them. When promised U.S. air cover also failed to materialize, the invaders were easily killed or captured by the Cuban forces. Many of the survivors were ransomed back to the U.S. for $64 million. President Kennedy had directed the operation.
1368. Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by John F. Kennedy to build up Third World nations to the point where they could manage their own affairs.
1369. Cuban Missile Crisis
October 14-28, 1962 - After discovering that the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba, which was really a blockade, but couldn't be called that since blockades are a violation of international law. After 6 days of confrontation that led to the brink of nuclear war, Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle the launch sites.
1370. ICBM
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
1371. Revenue Act of 1942
Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
1372. G.I. Bill of Rights 1944 - Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.
1373. Office of War mobilization and Reconversion
1944 - Directed by James F. Byrnes. Determined whether any prime contract for war production scheduled for termination after WWII should be continued in force.
1374. Extension of OPA vetoed
OPA had controlled wartime prices and a watered-down version was approved by Congress to stay in effect after the war, but Truman vetoed it.
1375. Postwar Inflation
The high volume of U.S. spending during the war, which reached an estimated $341 billion, and pent up consumer demand caused by war-time rationing led to inflation after the war.
1376. Baby Boom
30 million war babies were born between 1942 and 1950.
1377. Employment Act of 1946
Started because of the flood of available workers after WWII. Established the Council of Economic Advisors. declared that the government was committed to maintaining maximum employment.
1378. Taft-Hartley Act
1947 - Senator Robert A. Taft co-authored the labor-Management Relations Act with new Jersey Congressman Fred Allan Hartley, Jr. The act amended the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and imposed certain restrictions of the money and power of labor unions, including a prohibition against mandatory closed shops.
1379. Senator Robert A. Taft
A key Republican leader in the Senate and a supporter of Joseph McCarthy.
1380. Right-to-Work laws
State laws that provide that unions cannot impose a requirement that workers join the union as a condition of their employment.
1381. Election of 1948: candidates, issues
Democrat - Harry Truman
Republican - John Dewey
States' Rights Democrat (Dixiecrat) - Strom Thurmond
Progressive - Henry Wallace
The Democratic party was torn apart by the dispute between the liberal civil rights platform of the majority and the conservative, states' rights views of the southern membership, and the Progressive party pulled away liberal votes as well. Although everyone expected Dewey to win, Truman managed a surprise victory.
1382. Dixiecrats, J. Strom Thurmond
Southern Democrats disgruntled over the strong civil rights proposals of the Democrats' 1948 National Convention. Formed the States' Rights Democratic Party and nominated Thurmond (governor of South Carolina) for president.
1383. Progressive Party, Henry Wallace
Former vice-president under Roosevelt, Wallace ran for president with the Progressive Party, a branch of the Democrats who opposed the Cold War and the policy of containment. He lost but became secretary of commerce under Truman.
1384. Fair Deal
Truman's policy agenda -- he raised the minimum wage from 65 to 75 cents an hour, expanded Social Security benefits to cover 10 million more people, and provided government funding for 100,000 low-income public housing units and for urban renewal.
1385. Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)
An organization for the advancement of liberal causes in the 1940s.
1386. National Security Acts
1947 - Created the cabinet post of Secretary of Defense, the CIA, and the National Security Council. 1949 - Created NATO.
1387. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
1388. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957), McCarthyism
Wisconsin Senator who began sensational campaign in February, 1950 by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. In 1953 became Chair of the Senate Sub- Committee on Investigations and accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted.
1389. Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
1390. McCarran Internal Security Act
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
1391. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
1392. Twenty-Second Amendment
Proposed in 1947 and ratified in 1951. It limited the number of terms that a president may serve to two. Was brought on by FDR's 4-term presidency.
1393. Election of 1952: candidates & issues
Republicans - Eisenhower/Nixon, Democrats - Adlai Stevenson
Issues were conservatism and containment of Communism. Republicans won by a landslide.
1394. Ike (Eisenhower) and Modern Republicanism
Conservative about federal spending, liberal about personal freedoms. Believed in a balanced budget and lower taxes, but not in getting rid of existing social and economic legislation.
1395. Fiscal Management
Starting in 1950, the federal government controlled expenditures by regulating the budget, including the deficit.
1396. Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)
A Protestant minister who, in the 1940's, effected and influenced religion, society and politics in the U.S. Known for liberal philosophy, he believed that each individual had the primary responsibility for creating a good society. Founded the Liberal Party in 1944 and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964.
1397. Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead
She wrote this novel in 1943 to express her extreme conservative views and her belief that communism was inherently unworkable. Her philosophy was that society functions best when each individual pursues his or her own self-interest, called objectivism.
1398. McCarran-Walter Immigration Act
1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
1399. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW)
Created by Republican Congress members under Ms. Overta Culp Hobby of Texas. Regulated through committees.
1400. Interstate Highways Act
1944 - Began federal funding for an interstate highway system.
1401. St Lawrence Seaway
Waterway to connect Great Lakes on the U.S./Canadian border to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River, it allowed better shipping and transportation, and improved international relations and trade.
1402. Landrum-Griffin Act
1959 - Specially tailored to make labor officials responsible for the union's financial affairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing.
1403. Jimmy Hoffa
Leader of the teamster's union, he was anti-AFL/CIO. He threatened to defeat for reelection an Congressman who dared to vote for a tough labor law.
1404. AFL-CIO merger
In 1955 at a New York City Convention, these two once-rival organizations decided to put aside their differences and unite. Had a total membership of over 15 million.
1405. Alaska, Hawaii
McKinley had purchased Alaska in 1867 for nine cents an acre and it was admitted to the Union in 1959. Alaska had great natural resources, including gold and oil reserves. Hawaii became the 50th state in 1959.
1406. Sputnik
October, 1957 - The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets.
1407. National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act)
1958 - This created a multi-million dollar loan fund for college students and granted money to states for upgrading curriculum in the sciences and foreign languages.
1408. "Military-Industrial Complex"
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
1409. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.
1410. Fair Employment Practices Committee
Enacted by executive order 8802 on June 25, 1941 to prohibit discrimination in the armed forces.
1411. Detroit race riots
June 25, 1943 - Outright racial war broke out between Blacks and Whites and the government did not send help.
1412. Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma
He wrote this to increase White awareness of the awful discrimination against Blacks.
1413. Rural South vs. Urban North
Southern communities were more rural and Northern communities more urban.
1414. To Secure these Rights
A report by the President's Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year after the Committee was formed, and helped pave the way for the civil rights era. It recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.
1415. Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1948
In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
1416. Korean War (1950-1953)
At the end of WW II, Korea had been divided into a northern sector occupied by the U.S.S.R. and a southern sector occupied by the U.S. who instituted a democratic government. On June 25, 1950, the North invaded the South. The United Nations created an international army, lead by the U.S. to fight for the South and China joined the war on the side of North Korea. This was the first time the United Nations had intervened militarily.
1417. "Separate but Equal"
In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal facilities for Blacks and Whites were legal.
1418. Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1419. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
1420. Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, she refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
1421. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968)
An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
1422. Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
1423. Civil Rights Act, 1957
Created by the U.S. Commission of Civil Rights and the Civil Rights division of the Justice Department.
1424. Civil Rights Act, 1960
It gave the Federal Courts the power to register Black voters and provided for voting referees who served wherever there was racial discrimination in voting, making sure Whites did not try to stop Blacks from voting.
1425. Literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes, White primaries
Literacy tests: Voters had to prove basic literacy to be entitled to vote. Because of poor schools, Blacks were often prevented from voting. Grandfather clause: Said that a person could vote only if their grandfather had been registered to vote, which disqualified Blacks whose grandparents had been slaves. Poll taxes and White primaries were other methods used to keep Blacks from voting.
1426. West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 1942
Decided that a state can require student to salute the flag in school.
1427. Korematsu v. U.S., 1944
Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II.
1428. Smith v. Allwright, 1944
Outlawed White primaries held by the Democratic Party, in violation of the 15th Amendment.
1429. Dennis v. U.S., 1951
In 1948, the Attorney General indicted two key Communist leaders for violation of the Smith Act of 1940 which prohibited conspiring to teach violent overthrow of the government. They were convicted in a 6-2 decision and their appeal was rejected.
1430. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer, 1952
Supreme Court decision which restricted the powers of the president and the executive branch.
1431. Sweatt v. Painter, 1950
Segregated law school in Texas was held to be an illegal violation of civil rights, leading to open enrollment.
1432. Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
1433. Montgomery Bus Boycott
December, 1955 - In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat for a White man as required by city ordinance. It started the Civil Rights Movement and an almost nation-wide bus boycott lasting 11 months.
1434. Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968)
An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, he earned a Ph.D. at Boston University. The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he was assassinated outside his hotel room.
1435. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Headed by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a coalition of churches and Christians organizations who met to discuss civil rights.
1436. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909 to improve living conditions for inner city Blacks, evolved into a national organization dedicated to establishing equal legal rights for Blacks.
1437. Urban League
Helping Blacks to find jobs and homes, it was founded in 1966 and was a social service agency providing facts about discrimination.
1438. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
1941-42 - Interracial until 1962, when it became predominately Black, after 1964, only Blacks were allowed to join. It concentrated on organizing votes for Black candidates and political causes, successful even in states like Mississippi and Alabama.
1439. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
1440. Sit-ins, freedom rides
Late 1950's, early 1960's, these were nonviolent demonstrations and marches that challenged segregation laws, often braving attacks by angry White mobs.
1441. "I have a dream" speech
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
1442. March on Washington, 1963
August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement.
1443. Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
1444. Adam Clayton Powell
Flamboyant Congressman from Harlem and chairman of the House and Labor Committee, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1968, but removed from office for alleged misuse of funds.
1445. H. Rap Brown
A proponent of Black Power, he succeeded Stokely Carmichael as head of SNCC. He was indicted by inciting riot and for arson.
1446. Malcom X
One-time pimp and street hustler, converted to a Black Muslim while in prison. At first urged Blacks to seize their freedom by any means necessary, but later changed position and advocated racial harmony. He was assassinated in February, 1965.
1447. Stokely Carmichael
In 1966, as chair of SNCC, he called to assert Black Power. Supporting the Black Panthers, he was against integration.
1448. Black Panthers
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
1449. Black Muslims
Common name for the Nation of Islam, a religion that encouraged separatism from White society. They claimed the "White Devil" was the chief source of evil in the world.
1450. Angela Davis
Black Communist college professor affiliated with the Black Panthers, she was accused of having been involved in a murderous jail-break attempt by that organization.
1451. Black Power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
1452. Twenty-Fourth Amendment
1964 - It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
1453. Watts, Detroit race riots
Watts: August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Detroit: July, 1967, the army was called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
1454. Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders
In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
1455. De Facto, De Jure segregation
De Facto means "it is that way because it just is," and De Jure means that there are rules and laws behind it. In 1965, President Johnson said that getting rid of De Jure segregation was not enough.
1456. White Backlash
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
1457. Robert Weaver (b. 1907)
Influential Black economist, he served in the Department of the Interior and was Secretary of Housing and Urban Affairs under Lyndon B. Johnson, becoming the first Black Cabinet official in the U.S.
1458. Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
In 1967, appointed the first Black Supreme Court Justice, he had led that NAACP's legal defense fund and had argued the Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case before the Supreme Court.
1459. Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Accommodations Section of the Act
This portion of the Act stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
1460. Voting Rights Act, 1965
Passed by Congress in 1965, it allowed for supervisors to register Blacks to vote in places where they had not been allowed to vote before.
1461. Civil Rights Act, 1968
Attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing.
1462. Geography: North and South Vietnam
North and South Vietnam were split at the 17th parallel. North Vietnam is bordered by the Gulf of Tonkin on the east and Laos on the west. South Vietnam is bordered by Laos and Cambodia on the west. West of Laos and Cambodia lays Thailand.
1463. Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
North Vietnamese leader who had lead the resistance against the Japanese during WW II and at the end of the war had led the uprising against the French Colonial government. He had traveled in Europe, was an ardent Communist, and became President of the North Vietnamese government established after the French withdrawal. Often called the George Washington of North Vietnam.
1464. Viet Cong
Name given to the guerilla fighters on the Communist side. The North Vietnamese Army (NVA) were regular troops.
1465. Dien Bien Phu
In 1946, war broke out between communist insurgents in North Vietnam, called the Viet Minh, and the French Colonial government. In the spring of 1954, the Viet Minh surrounded and destroyed the primary French fortress in North Vietnam at Dien Bien Phu. The defeat was so disastrous for the French that they decided to withdraw from Vietnam.
1466. Geneva Conference, 1954
French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
1467. National Liberation Front (NLF)
Official title of the Viet Cong. Created in 1960, they lead an uprising against Diem's repressive regime in the South.
1468. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
August, 1964 - After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.
1469. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
An area that both militaries are required to stay out of in order to create a buffer between nations. In Vietnam, a five mile wide DMZ was established between the North and South along the 17th parallel.
1470. Domino Theory
1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
1471. Tet Offensive
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
1472. Kent State Incident, Jackson State Incident
Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened fire on a group of students protesting the Vietnam War. Jackson State: Police opened fire in a dormitory.
1473. Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers
Papers were part of a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens of the U.S. and the world about its intentions in Vietnam.
1474. My Lai, Lt. Calley
March, 1968 - An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. Lt. Calley, who led the patrol, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 10 years for killing 20 people.
1475. Hanoi, Haiphong
The Declaration of Independence by the Vietnamese was proclaimed in Hanoi on September 2, 1945. Haiphong is Hanoi's harbor.
1476. Senator Fullbright
Anti-Vietnam War Senator from Arkansas, he was head of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In 1966 and 1967, he held a series of hearings to air anti-war sentiments.
1477. Bombing of Laos and Cambodia
March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned of by the American public until July, 1973.
1478. Vietnamization
The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
1479. Paris Accord, 1973
January 7, 1973 - U.S. signed a peace treaty with North Vietnam and began withdrawing troops. On April 25, 1975, South Vietnam was taken over by North Vietnam, in violation of the treaty.
1480. Election of 1960: issues, candidates, "Missile gap"
Kennedy, the Democrat, won 303 electoral votes, Nixon, the Republican, won 219 electoral votes, Byrd, the Independent, won 15 electoral votes. Kennedy and Nixon split the popular vote almost 50/50, with Kennedy winning by 118,000. The issues were discussed in televised debates. The "Missile gap" referred to the U.S. military claim that the U.S.S.R. had more nuclear missiles that the U.S., creating a "gap" in U.S. defensive capabilities.
1481. "Impeach Earl Warren"
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Earl Warren used the Court's authority to support civil rights and individual liberties. He authored Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas and Roe v. Wade decisions. His liberal attitudes led conservative groups to brand him a communist and lobby for his impeachment.
1482. Miranda Decision, Escobedo Decision
1964 - Miranda held that a person arrested for a crime must be advised of his right to remain silent and to have an attorney before being questioned by the police. Escobedo held that an accused can reassert these rights at any time, even if he had previously agreed to talk to the police.
1483. Baker v. Carr, 1962
The Supreme Court declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must be following at both state and national levels. The decision required that districts be redrawn so the each representative represented the same number of people.
1484. Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
The Supreme Court held that all defendants in serious criminal cases are entitled to legal counsel, so the state must appoint a free attorney to represent defendants who are too poor to afford one.
1485. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring
An American marine biologist wrote in 1962 about her suspicion that the pesticide DDT, by entering the food chain and eventually concentrating in higher animals, caused reproductive dysfunctions. In 1973, DDT was banned in the U.S. except for use in extreme health emergencies.
1486. New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
1487. Kennedy and the Steel Price Rollback
Angry at steel companies for cutting wages and increasing prices in the face of his low-inflation plan, Kennedy activated the federal government's anti-trust laws and the FBI. Awed, steel companies cut their prices back for a few days, then raised them again slowly and quietly. Kennedy "jawboned" the steel industry into overturning a price increase after having encouraged labor to lower its wage demands.
1488. Peace Corps., Vista
Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished people how to improve their lives.
1489. Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
1490. Common Market
Popular name for the European Economic Community established in 1951 to encourage greater economic cooperation between the countries of Western Europe and to lower tariffs on trade between its members.
1491. Trade Expansion Act, 1962
October, 1962 - The Act gave the President the power to reduce tariffs in order to promote trade. Kennedy could lower some tariffs by as much as 50%, and, in some cases, he could eliminate them.
1492. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was permitted. It was signed by all major powers except France and China.
1493. Lee Harvey Oswald, Warren Commission
November, 22, 1963 - Oswald shot Kennedy from a Dallas book depository building, and was later himself killed by Jack Ruby. Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled that they both acted alone.
1494. Bay of Pigs, 1961
A small army of ant-Castro Cuban exiles were trained and financed by the U.S. in the hope their invasion would lead to a popular uprising to overthrow the Communist government. The invasion force landed at the Bay of Pigs in Southern Cuba, but received no popular support and were quickly wiped out by Castro's forces.
1495. United Nations in the Congo, 1960
A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in troops to try to prevent civil war.
1496. "Flexible Response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
1497. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1963
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
1498. Alliance for Progress
1961 - Formed by Kennedy to build up third-world nations to the point where they could manage themselves.
1499. Dominican Republic, 1965
President Johnson sent 20,000 American troops to the island to keep a leftist government from coming to power.
1500. Salvador Allende
President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet.
1501. Panama Canal treaties
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
1502. Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
Formed in 1962 in Port Huron, Michigan, SDS condemned anti-Democratic tendencies of large corporations, racism and poverty, and called for a participatory Democracy.
1503. "Flower Children"
Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
1504. Charles Reich, The Greening of America
Written in 1970, it predicted a coming revolution with no violence. It offers an interpretation of how the U.S. went wrong and predicts a rebirth of human values through a "new" generation.
1505. Election of 1964: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Barry Goldwater
Goldwater alienated people and was believed to be too conservative. He was perceived as an extremist who advocated the use of nuclear weapons if needed to win the war in Vietnam. LBJ won by the largest margin ever.
1506. Great Society
Platform for LBJ's campaign, it stressed the 5 P's: Peace, Prosperity, anti-Poverty, Prudence and Progress.
1507. Office of Economic Opportunity
1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.
1508. War on Poverty
1965 - Johnson figured that since the Gross National Profit had risen, the country had lots of extra money "just lying around," so he'd use it to fight poverty. It started many small programs, Medicare, Head Start, and reorganized immigration to eliminate national origin quotas. It was put on hold during the Vietnam War.
1509. Elementary and Secondary Act
1965 - Provided federal funding for primary and secondary education and was meant to improve the education of poor people. This was the first federal program to fund education.
1510. Medicare
Enacted in 1965 - provided, under Social Security, for federal subsidies to pay for the hospitalization of sick people age 65 and over.
1511. Abolition of immigration quotas
1965 - Amendments to Immigration and Nationality Act abolished national origin quotas and instead, based immigration on skills and need for political asylum.
1512. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Created by Congress in 1965, it was 11th in cabinet office. Afro-American economist Dr. Robert C. Weaver was named head, and the department regulated and monitored housing and suburban development. It also provided rent supplements for low-income families.
1513. John Birch Society
Right-wing group named for an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.
1514. New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
1515. Senator Robert F. Kennedy
Attorney General under his brother, JFK, he was assassinated in June 1968 while campaigning for the Democratic party nomination.
1516. Election of 1968: candidates, issues
Richard M. Nixon, Republican, won by a 1% margin against Hubert Humphrey, Democrat. The issues were the war in Vietnam and urban crisis of law and order.
1517. Czechoslovakia invaded
1968 - Liberalization of Czechoslovakia was crushed by the Soviet Union invasion.
1518. Chicago, Democratic Party Convention riot
August, 1968 - With national media coverage, thousands of anti-war protestors, Blacks and Democratic supporters were clubbed by Major Daley's police.
1519. Richard Nixon's "Southern Strategy"
His political strategy of "courting" the South and bad-mouthing those Northerners who bad- mouthed the South. He chose Spiro Agnew, the Governor of Maryland, as his running mate to get the Southern vote.
1520. Governor George Wallace of Alabama
1968 - Ran as the American Independent Party candidate in the presidential election. A right- wing racist, he appealed to the people's fear of big government and made a good showing.
1521. Moon race, Neil Armstrong
July 20, 1969 - Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon, beating the Communists in the moon race and fulfilling Kennedy's goal. Cost $24 billion.
1522. Sunbelt versus Frostbelt
A trend wherein people moved from the northern and eastern states to the south and southwest region from Virginia to California.
1523. Betty Frieden, The Feminine Mystique
1963 - Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity."
1524. National Organization for Women (NOW)
Inspired by Betty Frieden, a reform organization that battled for equal rights with men by lobbying and testing laws in court. NOW wanted equal employment opportunities, equal pay, ERA, divorce law changes, and legalized abortion.
1525. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
1526. National Women's Political Caucus
Established by Betty Frieden, encouraged women to seek help or run for political office.
1527. Ralph Nader, Unsafe at Any Speed
1965 - Nader said that poor design and construction of automobiles were the major causes of highway deaths. He upset Congress by asking for legislation regulating car design and creation of national auto safety board, NATSA.
1528. Nixon, "New Federalism"
Slogan which meant returning power to the states, reversing the flow of power and resources from states and communities to Washington, and start power and resources flowing back to people all over America. Involved a 5-year plan to distribute $30 billion of federal revenues to states.
1529. Spiro T. Agnew, his resignation
October, 1973 - Nixon's vice-president resigned and pleaded "no contest" to charges of tax evasion on payments made to him when he was governor of Maryland. He was replaced by Gerald R. Ford.
1530. "Revenue Sharing"
1972 - A Nixon program that returned federal funds to the states to use as they saw fit.
1531. Wage and price controls
1971 - To curb inflation, President Nixon froze prices, wages, and revenues for 90 days.
1532. Nixon versus Congress
January, 1973 - Republican party operatives who had broken into the Democratic party facility at the Watergate Hotel convicted of burglary. Investigation of possible White House involvement disclosed existence of Nixon's tapes of meetings, but the President refused to turn over the tapes to Congress. Opposition to Nixon created unity in Congress that allowed passage of legislation Nixon had opposed.
1533. Watergate
June 17, 1972 - five men arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Two White House aides were indicted; they quit, Senate hearing began in May, 1973, Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In July, 1974, Nixon's impeachment began, so he resign with a disbarment.
1534. Committee for the Reelection of the President (CREEP)
Established in 1971 to help Nixon get reelected. Involved in illegal activities such as the Watergate break-in.
1535. Election of 1972: candidates, issues
People feared that George S. McGovern, the Democratic candidate, was an isolationist because he promised cuts in defense spending. Richard M. Nixon, the Republican, promised an end to the Vietnam War and won by 60.7% of the popular vote.
1536. White House "Plumbers"
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
1537. Senator George M. McGovern
Democratic nominee for the 1972 election, from South Dakota. Somewhat of a radical, many voters thought he was a hippie and too supportive of women and militant Blacks. Ran an unsuccessful campaign, hampered by lack of funds.
1538. Senator Edmund Muskie
Senator from Maine, although he was favored to win the Democratic candidacy, he lost to McGovern.
1539. Watergate tapes
Tapes which proved Nixon was involved in the Watergate scandal. Although he withheld them at first, the Supreme Court made Nixon turn over these recordings of the plans for the cover-up of the scandal.
1540. H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman, John W. Dean and John Mitchel
Men involved in the Watergate scandal, who took the fall for Nixon. Mitchel was Attorney General at the time.
1541. Impeachment proceedings
Special committee led by Ervin began impeachment talks about Nixon. Impeachment hearing were opened May 9, 1974 against Nixon by the House Judiciary Committee. The Committee recommended 3 articles of impeachment against Nixon: taking part in a criminal conspiracy to obstruct justice, "repeatedly" failing to carry out his constitutional oath, and unconstitutional defiance of committee subpoenas. Nixon resigned on August 9.
1542. SALT I Agreement
Strategic Arms Limitations Talks by Nixon and Brezhnev in Moscow in May, 1972. Limited Anti-Ballistic Missiles to two major departments and 200 missiles.
1543. Detente
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
1544. China visit, 1972
February 21 - Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
1545. Recognition of China
Nixon established a trade policy and recognized the People's Republic of China, which surprised many because China had been an enemy during the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
1546. War Powers Act, 1973
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
1547. Six Day War, 1967
Israel responded to a blockade of the port of Elath on the Gulf of Aqaba by Egypt in June, 1967, by launching attacks on Egypt, and its allies, Jordan and Syria. Won certain territories for defense.
1548. Yom Kippur War, 1973
Frustrated by their losses in the Six-Days War, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973. Israel counterattacked, won a decisive victory, and had even occupied portions of northern Egypt.
1549. Henry S. Kissinger, "Shuttle Diplomacy"
Policy of this Secretary of State to travel around the world to various nations to discuss and encourage the policy of detente.
1550. Twenty-Fifth Amendment
Made the replacement of a vice president the same as for a Supreme Court justice, i.e., the president nominates someone and Congress decides.
1551. Twenty-Sixth Amendment
Lowered voting age to 18.
1552. Chicanos
Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the majority of migrant farm labor in the U.S.
1553. Cesar Chavez
Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
1554. Warren E. Burger Appointed, 1969
A conservative appointed by Nixon, he filled Earl Warren's liberal spot.
1555. American Indian Movement (AIM), Wounded Knee
Formed in 1968 by urban Indians who seized the village of Wounded Knee in February, 1973 to bring attention to Indian rights. This 71-day confrontation with federal marshalls ended in a government agreement to reexamine treaty rights of the Ogalala Sioux.
1556. Multinational Corporations
Most were American business firms whose sales, work force, production facilities or other operations were worldwide in scope. They represented the latest development in the continuing growth of corporate organization.
1557. Arab oil embargo
October 6, 1973 - Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Moscow backed Egypt and both U.S. and U.S.S.R. put their armed forced on alert. In an attempt to pressure America into a pro-Arab stance, OPEC imposed an embargo on all oil to the U.S.
1558. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
1559. Balance of Trade
1973 - U.S. tried to balance its trade to make American goods cost less for foreigners, in order to encourage them to buy more American products. Resulted in a devalued dollar.
1560. Alaska pipeline
Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil fields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U.S..
1561. The Imperial Presidency
A book written in the later days of the Richard M. Nixon presidency by Arthur M. Schlensinger, Jr.
1562. Gerald R. Ford
Nixon's vice president after Agnew resigned, he became the only president never to be elected. Taking office after Nixon resigned, he pardoned Nixon for all federal crimes that he "committed or may have committed."
1563. "Stagflation"
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
1564. SALT II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
1565. Election of 1976: candidate, issues
Jimmy Carter, Democrate defeated Gerald Ford, Republican. The issues were energy, transportation, and conservation. Carter had no Washington ties. Ford appealed to the upper- middle class, but Carter won by 1.7 million votes.
1566. Jimmy Carter
Elected to the Senate in 1962 and 1964, in 1974 he became the 39th President, with Vice President Walter Mondale. He secured energy programs, set the framework for Egypt-Israel treaty, and sought to base foreign policy on human rights.
1567. Amnesty
A general pardon by which the government absolves offenders, President Carter offered amnesty of Americans who had fled to other countries to avoid the draft for the Vietnam War.
1568. Panama Canal Treaty
1978 - Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
1569. Camp David Accords
Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
1570. Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty: Menachem Begin, Anwar Sadat
Product of the Camp David Accords, Sadat represented Egypt and Begin represented Israel. Israel returned land to Egypt in exchange for Egyptian recognition. Earned both men the Noble Peace Prize.
1571. Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO), Yassar Arafat
Led by Arafat, it was organized to liberate Palestine from Israelis in the late '70's and early '80's. Its guerilla warfare and terrorist tactics were not effective.
1572. Humphrey-Hawkins Bill
Proposed that detention centers be set up for suspected subversives (Communists) who could be held without a trial, it was known as the "concentration camp bill."
1573. Department of Energy
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the importance of energy conservation.
1574. Department of Education
1977 - Carter added it to the Cabinet to acknowledge the changing role of the federal government in education.
1575. Afghanistan, 1979
The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring Afghanistan to support its Communist government against guerilla attacks by fundamentalist Muslims.
1576. Olympic Boycott, 1980
The U.S. withdrew from the competition held in Moscow to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. About 64 other nations withdrew for this and other reasons.
1577. Iranian Crisis, the Shah, the Ayatollah Khomeini
1978 - a popular uprising forced the Shah to flee Iran and a Muslim and national leader, the Ayatollah Khomeini, established an Islamic Republic based on the Koran. President Carter allowed the Shah to come to the U.S. for medical reasons. Young Iranian militants broke into the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and kept the staff hostage for 444 days, releasing them January, 1981.
1578. Election of 1980: candidates, issues
Ronald Wilson Reagan, Republican defeated Jimmy Carter, Democrat and John B. Anderson, Independent. The issues were government spending and traditional values.
1579. Reaganomics
Reagan's theory that if you cut taxes, it will spur the growth of public spending and improve the economy. It included tax breaks for the rich, "supply-side economics," and "trickle down" theory.
1580. Supply side economics
Reaganomics policy based on the theory that allowing companies the opportunity to make profits, and encouraging investment, will stimulate the economy and lead to higher standards of living for everyone. Argued that tax cuts can be used stimulate economic growth. Move money into the hands of the people and they will invest, thus creating prosperity.
1581. Sandra Day O'Connor
(b. 1930) Arizona state senator from 1969 to 1974, appointed to the Arizona Court of Appeals in 1979. Reagan appointed her to the U.S. Supreme Court, making her the first female Justice of the Supreme Court.
1582. Lech Walesa, Solidarity
President of Poland in 1990, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. He formed the first independent trade union in Poland, called Solidarity, and eventually brought down the Communist government and instituted democratic government. Credited with initiating the end of Communist domination in Eastern Europe.
1583. Three Mile Island
1979 - A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.
1584. "Moral Majority"
"Born-Again" Christians become politically active. The majority of Americans are moral people, and therefore are a political force.
1585. Iran-Iraq War
Fought over religious differences, this war lasted many years, from 1980 to 1988.
1586. El Salvador
Three U.S. nuns found shot in El Salvador in December, 1980. President Carter had stopped aid to El Salvador's right-wing dictator, but President Reagan started it again.
1587. Falkland Islands War
Between Britain and Argentina, centered around their claims to control over these islands.
1588. Supreme Court: Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
Ms. Mapp was affirmed convicted having pornography "on her person" even though Ohio police obtained the material without a warrant. The Supreme Court ruled that there must be a warrant to search.
1589. Supreme Court: Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
Court decided that state and local courts must provide counsel for defendants in felony cases at the state's expense in any serious felony prosecution. Before, counsel was only appointed if the death penalty was involved.
1590. Supreme Court: Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964
Court ruled that there was a right to counsel at the police station. This was needed to deter forced confessions given without the benefit of counsel.
1591. Supreme Court: Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
Court declared that police officers must inform persons they arrest of their rights: the right to remain silent and the right to counsel during interrogation.
1592. Supreme Court: Engel v. Vitale, 1962
Local and state laws requiring prayer in public schools were banned on the grounds that such laws violated the First Amendment.
1593. Supreme Court: School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, 1963
Held that it should not be necessary to require prayer be said in school. School district was said to be violating the First and Fourteenth Amendments.
1594. Supreme Court: Baker v. Carr, 1962
Declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must prevail at both state and national levels. Decision required that districts be redrawn as that each representative represented the same number of people.
1595. Supreme Court: Wesberry v. Sanders, 1964
Supreme Court required states to draw their congressional districts so that each represented the same number of people. "As nearly as practical, one man's vote . . . is to be worth as much as another's".
1597. Supreme Court: Reynolds v. Sims, 1964
Supreme Court created the one person, one vote grounded in the Equal Protection Clause.
1597. Supreme Court: Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S., 1964
Supreme Court said that there would be penalties for those who deprived others of equal enjoyment of places of accommodation on the basis of race, color, religion, or national origin.
1598. Supreme Court: Swan v. Carlotte-Mecklenberg Board of Education, 1971
A unanimous decision that the busing of students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation.
1599. Supreme Court: Bakke v. Board of Regents, University of California at Davis, 1978
Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit.
1600. Supreme Court: Reed v. Reed, 1971
Equal protection: the Supreme Court engaged in independent judicial review of a statute which discriminated between persons on the basis of sex, making it clear that the Supreme Court would no longer treat sex-based classifications with judicial deference.
1601. Supreme Court: Doe v. Bolton, 1973
Supreme Court found that physicians consulted by pregnant women had standing to contest the constitutionality of the state's abortion law.
1602. Supreme Court: Roe v. Wade, 1973
Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional most state statutes restricting abortion. It ruled that a state may not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first 3 months of pregnancy, and could regulate, but not prohibit abortion during the second trimester. Decision in effect overturned anti-abortion laws in 46 states.
1603. Supreme Court: Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 1980
Ruled that a man-made life form (genetic engineering) could be patented.